[The Corinthians giftes.]
1 After the salutation, 10 which in effect is an exhortation, 12 he reprehendeth the Corinthians sectes and diuisions, 17 and calleth them from pride to humilitie: 20 For, ouerthrowing all worldly wisedome, 23. 25 he aduaunceth onely the preaching of the crosse.
1 Paul [Note:  The inscription of the Epistle, wherein he chiefely goeth about to procure the good will of the Corinthians towardes him, yet notwithstanding so, that alwayes he letteth them to wit, that he is the seruaunt of God and not of men. ] called to be an [Note:  If he be an Apostle then he must be heard, although he sometimes reprehend them sharpely, seeing he hath not his owne cause in hand, but is a messenger that bringeth the commaundements of Christ. ] Apostle of Iesus Christ, through the will of God, and our brother [Note:  He ioyneth Sosthenes with himselfe, that this doctrine might be confirmed by two witnesses. ] Sosthenes,
2 [Note:  It is a Church of God, although it hath great faults in it, so that it obey them which admonish it. ] Vnto the Church of God, which is at Corinthus, to them that are [Note: Actes 15.9. 1.thessa.4.7. ] [Note:  A true definition of the Catholique Church, which is one. ] sanctified in [Note: [a] The father sanctifieth vs, that is to say, separateth vs from the wicked, in giuing vs to his Sonne, that he may be in vs, and wee in him. ] Christ Iesus, [Note: Rom.1.7. ephes.1.1. coloss.1.22. 1.timo.1.9. titus 2.3. ] Saintes by [Note: [b] Whom God of his gracious goodnesse and meere loue hath separated for himselfe: or whom God hath called to holinesse: the first of these two expositions, sheweth from whence our sanctification commeth, and the seconde, sheweth to what ende it tendeth. ] calling, [Note: 2.Timo.1.22. ] with all that [Note: [c] He is saide properly to call on God, who cryeth vnto the Lorde when he is in danger, and craueth helpe at his handes: and by the figure Synecdoche it is taken for all the seruice of God: and therefore to call vpon Christes Name, is to acknowledge and take him for very God. ] call on the Name of our Lord Iesus Christ in euery place, both their Lord, and ours:
3 [Note:  The foundation and the life of the Church, is Christ Iesus giuen of the Father. ] Grace be with you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Iesus Christ.
4 [Note:  Going about to condemne many vices, he beginneth with a true commendation of their vertues, lest he might seeme after to descende to chiding, being moued with malice or enuie: yet so, that he referreth all to God as the authour of them, and that in Christ, that the Corinthians might be more ashamed to prophane and abuse the holy giftes of God. ] I thanke my God alwayes on your behalfe for the grace of God, which is giuen you in Iesus Christ,
5 That in all things ye are made rich in him, [Note:  He toucheth that by name, which they most abused. ] in [Note: [d] Seeing that whiles wee liue here, we knowe but in part, and prophecie in part, this worde (All) must be restrained to the present state of the faithfull: but by Speache he meaneth not a vaine kinde of babling, but the gift of holy eloquence, which the Corinthians abused. ] all kinde of speach, and in all knowledge:
6 [Note:  He sheweth that the true vse of these giftes consisteth herein, that the mightie power of Christ might thereby be set foorth in them, that hereafter it might euidently appeare howe wickedly they abused them to glorie and ambition. ] As the testimonie of Iesus Christ hath bene [Note: [e] By those excellent giftes of the holy Ghost. ] confirmed in you:
7 So that ye are not destitute of any gift: [Note: Titus 2.11. philipp.3 20. ] [Note:  He sayeth by the way, that there is no cause why they shoulde please themselues so much in those giftes which they had receiued, seeing that those were nothing in comparison of them which are to be looked for. ] wayting for the [Note: [f] He speaketh of the last comming of Christ. ] appearing of our Lord Iesus Christ.
8 [Note: 1.Thessa.3.13. and 5.23. ] [Note:  He testifieth that hee hopeth well of them hereafter, that they may more patiently abide his reprehension afterwarde. And yet together therewithall sheweth, that as well the beginning as the accomplishing of our saluation is onely the worke of God. ] Who shall also confirme you vnto the ende, that ye may be [Note: [g] Hee calleth them blamelesse, not whom man neuer founde fault with, but with whom no man can iustly finde fault, that is to say, them which are in Christ Iesus, in whom there is no condemnation. See Luke 1.6. ] blamelesse, in the day of our Lord Iesus Christ.
9 [Note: 1.Thessa.5.24. ] God is [Note: [h] True and constant, who doeth not onely call vs, but giueth vs the gift of perseuerance also. ] faithfull, by whom ye are called vnto the felowship of his Sonne Iesus Christ our Lord.
10 [Note:  Hauing made an ende of the preface, he commeth to the matter it selfe, beginning with a most graue obtestation, as though they shoulde heare Christ him selfe speaking and not Paul. ] Nowe I beseeche you, brethren, by the
[He reproueth their contentions.]
Name of our Lorde Iesus Christ, that [Note:  The first part of this Epistle, wherein his purpose is, to call back the Corinthians to brotherly concord, and to take away all occasion of discord. So then this first part concerneth the taking away of schismes. Nowe a schisme is when men which otherwise agree and consent together in doctrine, doe yet separate themselues one from another. ] ye all speake one thing, and that there be no dissensions among you: but be ye [Note: [i] Knit together, as a bodie that consisteth of all his partes fitly knit together. ] knit together in one mind, and in one iudgement.
11 [Note:  He beginneth his reprehension and chiding by taking away of an obiection: for that he vnderstoode by good witnesses, that there were many factions among them. And therewithall he openeth the cause of dissensions, because that some did hang on one doctour, some on another, and some were so addicted to themselues, that they neglected all doctours and teachers, calling themselues the disciples of Christ onely, shutting foorth their teachers. ] For it hath bene declared vnto me, my brethren, of you by them that are of the house of Cloe, that there are contentions among you.
12 Nowe [Note: [k] The matter I would say to you, is this. ] this I say, that euery one of you saith, I am Pauls, and I am [Note: Actes 18.24. ] Apollos, and I am Cephas, and I am Christs.
13 [Note:  The first reason why schismes ought to be eschewed: because Christ seemeth by that meanes, to be deuided and torne in pieces, who cannot be the head of two diuers and disagreeing bodies, being himselfe one. ] Is Christ deuided? was [Note:  Another reason: Because they cannot without great iniurie to God, so hang of men as of Christ: which thing no doubt they doe, which allowe whatsoeuer some man speaketh, euen for his persons sake: as these men allowed one selfe same Gospel being vttered of one man, and did lothe it being vttered of another man. So that these factions were called by the names of their teachers. Nowe Paul setteth downe his owne name, not onely to grieue no man, but also to shewe that he pleadeth not his owne cause. ] Paul crucified for you? either were ye [Note:  The third reason taken of the forme and end of Baptisme, wherein we make a promise to Christ, calling on also the Name of the Father and the holy Ghost. Therefore although a man doe not fall from the doctrine of Christ, yet if he hang vpon some certaine teachers and despise others, he forsaketh Christ: for if he holde Christ his onely master, he woulde heare him, teaching by whomsoeuer. ] baptized into the name of Paul?
14 [Note:  He protesteth that he speaketh so much the more boldly of these things, because that through Gods prouidence, he is void of all suspicion of chalenging disciples vnto himself, and taking them from others. Whereby we may vnderstand, that not the scholers onely, but the teachers also are here reprehended, which gathered them selues flockes apart. ] I thanke God, that I baptized none of you, but [Note: Actes 18.8. ] Crispus, and Gaius,
15 Lest any should say, that I had baptized into mine owne name.
16 I baptized also the houshold of Stephanas: furthermore knowe I not, whether I baptized any other.
17 [Note:  The taking away of an obiection: that he gaue not him selfe to baptize many amongst them: not for the contempt of Baptisme, but because he was chiefly occupied in deliuering the doctrine, and committed them that receiued his doctrine to others to be baptized, whereof he had store. And so he declared sufficiently how farre he was from all ambition: whereas on the other side, they whom he reprehendeth, as though they gathered disciples vnto themselues and not vnto Christ, bragged most ambitiously of numbers, which they had baptized. ] For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preache the Gospel, [Note:  Now he turneth himselfe to the doctours themselues, which pleased themselues in braue and ambitious eloquence, to the ende that they might drawe more disciples after them. He confesseth plainely that he was vnlike vnto them, opposing grauely as it became an Apostle, his example against their peruerse iudgements: So that this is another place of this Epistle, touching the obseruing of a godly simplicitie both in wordes and sentences in teaching of the Gospel. ] not with [Note: Chap.2.13. 2.pet.1.16. ] [Note: [l] With eloquence: which Paul casteth off from him not onely as not necessarie, but also as flat contrary to the office of his Apostleship: and yet had Paul his kind of eloquence, but it was heauenly, not of man, & void of painted wordes. ] wisdome of wordes, lest the [Note:  The reason why he vsed not the pompe of wordes, and painted speach: because it was Gods will to bring ye world to his obedience by that way, whereby the most idiots amongst men might vnderstand, that this worke was done of God himselfe without the arte of man. Therefore as saluation is set forth vnto vs in ye Gospel, by the crosse of Christ, then which nothing is more contemptible, & more farre from life, so God would haue the maner of the preaching of ye crosse, most different from those meanes, wt which men do vse to draw & entise other, either to heare or beleeue: therefore it pleased him by a certaine kind of most wise follie, to triumph ouer the most foolish wisdome of the world, as he had said before by Esay, that he would. And hereby we may gather, that both those doctours which were puffed vp wt ambitious eloquence, & also their hearers, strayed farre away from the ende and marke of their vocation. ] crosse of Christ should be made of none effect.
[The worldly wisedome.]
18 For that [Note: [m] The preaching of Christ crucified, or the kinde of speach which wee vse. ] preaching of the crosse is to them that perish, foolishnesse: but vnto vs, which are saued, it is the [Note: Rom.1.16. ] [Note: [n] It is that wherein hee declareth his marueilous power in sauing his elect, which would not so euidently appeare, if it hanged vpon any helpe of man, for so, man might attribute that to himselfe, which is proper onely to the crosse of Christ. ] power of God.
19 [Note:  The Apostle prooueth, that this ought not onely not to seeme strange, seeing that it was foretold so long before, but declareth further, that God is wont to punish the pride of the worlde in such sort, which so pleaseth it selfe in it owne wisedom: and therefore that that is vaine, yea a thing of nothing, and such as God reiecteth as vnprofitable, which they so carefully laboured for, and made so great accompt of. ] For it is written, [Note: Esay 29.14. ] I will destroy the wisedome of the wise, and will cast away the vnderstanding of the prudent.
20 Where is the wise? where is the [Note: [o] Where art thou, O thou learned fellowe, and thou that spendest thy daies in turning thy bookes? ] Scribe? where is the [Note: [p] Thou that spendest all thy time in seeking out the secret things of this world, and in expounding all hard questions: and thus triumpheth he against all the men of this worlde, for there was not one of them that could so much as dreame vpon this secrete & hidden mysterie. ] disputer of this worlde? hath not God made the wisedome of this worlde foolishnesse?
21 [Note:  He sheweth that the pride of men was worthily punished of God, because they would not behold God, as meete was they should, in the most cleare glasse of the wisdome of the world, which is the workemanship of the worlde. ] For seeing the [Note: [q] By the worlde hee meaneth all men which are not borne a newe, but remaine as they were, when they were first borne. ] worlde by wisedome knewe not God in the [Note: [r] In the workemanship of this worlde, which hath the marueilous wisdome of God ingraued in it, so that euery man may beholde it. ] wisedome of GOD, [Note:  The goodnes of God is wonderfull, for while he goeth about to punish the pride of the worlde, hee is very prouident and careful for the saluation of it, and teacheth men to become fooles, that they may be wise to God. ] it pleased God by the [Note: [s] So hee calleth the preaching of the Gospel as the enemies supposed it: but in the meane season hee taunteth them very sharply, who had rather charge God with follie, then acknowledge their owne, and craue pardon for it. ] foolishnesse of preaching to saue them that beleeue:
22 [Note: Matt.12.38. ] [Note:  A declaration of that which he said: that the preaching of the Gospel, is foolish. It is foolish sayth he, to them whom God hath not indued with new light, that is to say, to al men, being considered in them selues: for the Iewes require miracles, and the Grecians arguments, which they may comprehende by their witte and wisedome: and therefore they doe not onely not beleeue the Gospell, but also they mocke at it. Notwithstanding in this foolish preaching, there is the great vertue and wisdom of God, but such as those onely which are called do perceiue: God shewing most plainely, that eue then when mad men thinke him most foolish, he is farre wiser then they are: and that he surmounteth all their might and power, when he vseth most vile and abiect thinges, as it hath appeared in the fruite of the preaching of the Gospell. ] Seeing also that the Iewes require a signe, and the Grecians seeke after wisdome.
23 But wee preach Christ crucified: vnto the Iewes, euen a stumbling blocke, and vnto the Grecians, foolishnesse:
24 But vnto them which are called, both of the Iewes and Grecians, we preach Christ, the power of God, and the wisedome of God.
25 For the foolishnesse of God is wiser then men, and the weakenesse of God is stronger then men.
26 [Note:  A confirmation taken of those thinges which came to passe at Corinth, where the Church especially consisted of the basest and common people, in so much that the philosophers of Greece were driuen to shame, when they saw that they could do nothing with their wisedome and eloquence, in comparison of the Apostles, whome notwithstanding they called Idiots and vnlearned. And herewithall doeth he beate downe their pride: for God did not preferre them before those noble and wise men because they shoulde be proude, but that they might bee costrained euen whether they willed or not, to reioyce in the Lorde, by whose mercie, although they were the most abiects of all, they had obteined in Christ, both this wisedome, and all thinges necessary to saluation. ] For brethren, you see your [Note: [t] What way the Lorde hath taken in calling you. ] calling, how that not many wise men [Note: [u] After that kinde of wisedome which men make accompt of, as though there were none els: who because they are carnall, knowe not spirituall wisedome. ] after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble are called.
27 But God hath chosen the foolish thinges of the world to confound the wise, and God hath chosen the weake thinges of the worlde, to confound the mightie things,
28 And vile things of the worlde and thinges which are despised, hath God chosen, and thinges which [Note: [x] Which in mans iudgement are almost nothing. ] are not, to bring to [Note: [y] To shewe that they are vaine and vnprofitable, and nothing woorth. See Rom.3.31. ] nought thinges that are,
[The wisedome of God.]
29 That no [Note: [z] Flesh, is oft as we see, taken for the whole man: and he vseth this worde Flesh, very fitly, to set the weake and, miserable condition of man, & the maiestie of God, one against the other. ] flesh shoulde reioyce in his presence.
30 But ye are [Note: [a] Whome he cast downe before, nowe he lifteth vp, yea, higher then all men: yet so, that he sheweth them that all their worthinesse is without themselues, that is, standeth in Christ, and that of God. ] of him in Christ Iesus, [Note:  Hee teacheth that especially and aboue all things, the Gospel ought not to be contemned, seeing it conteineth the chiefest things that are to be desired, to wit, true wisedome, the true way to obteine righteousnesse, the true way to liue honestly and godly, the true deliuerance from all miseries and calamities. ] who of God is made vnto vs wisedome and righteousnesse, and sanctification, and redemption,
31 That, according as it is written, [Note: Iere.9.24. 2.cor. 10.17. ] [Note: [b] Let him yeeld all to God and giue him thankes: and so by this place is mans free will beaten downe, which the Papists so dreame of. ] Hee that reioyceth, let him reioyce in the Lord.
1 He setteth downe a platforme of his preaching, 4 which was base in respect of mans wisedome, 7. 13 but noble in respect of the spirituall power and efficacie, 14 and so concludeth that flesh and blood cannot rightly iudge thereof.
1 And [Note:  Hee returneth to the 17. verse of the former chapter, that is to say, to his owne example: confessing that hee vsed not amongest them either excellencie of woordes or entising speache of mans wisedome, but with great simplicitie of speach both knewe and preached Iesus Christ crucified, humble and abiect, as touching the flesh. ] I, brethren, when I came to you, came not with [Note: Chap.1.17. ] excellencie of woordes, or of wisedome, shewing vnto you the [Note: [a] The Gospel. ] testimonie of God.
2 For I [Note: [b] I purposed not to professe any other knowledge but the knowledge of Christ and him crucified. ] esteemed not to knowe any thing among you, saue Iesus Christ, and him crucified.
3 [Note: Act.18.1. ] And I was among you in [Note: [c] Hee setteth weakenesse, against excellencie of woordes, and therefore ioyneth with it feare and trembling which are the companions of true modestie, not such feare and trembling as terrifie the conscience, but such as are contrary to vanitie and pride. ] weakenesse, and in feare, and in much trembling.
4 Neither stoode my woorde, and my preaching in the [Note: Chap.1.17. 2.peter 1.16. ] entising speach of mans wisdom, [Note:  He turneth that nowe to the commendation of his ministerie, which he had graunted to his aduersaries: for his vertue and power, which they knewe well enough, was so much the more excellent, because it had no worldly helpe ioyned with it. ] but in plaine [Note: [d] By plaine euidence he meaneth such a proofe, as is made by certaine and necessary reasons. ] euidence of the Spirite and of power,
5 [Note:  And he telleth the Corinthians, that hee did it for their great profite, because they might thereby knowe manifestly, that the Gospel was from heauen. Therefore he priuily rebuketh them, because that in seeking vaine ostentation, they willingly depriued them selues of the greatest helpe of their faith. ] That your faith should not be in the wisdome of men, but in the power of God.
6 [Note:  Another argument taken of the nature of the thing, that is, of the Gospel, which is true wisedome, but knowen to them onely which are desirous of perfection: and is vnsauerie to them which otherwise excell in the worlde, but yet vainely and fraillie. ] And we speake wisedome among them that are [Note: [e] Those are called perfect here, not which had gotten perfection alreadie, but such as tende to it, as Philippians 3.15. so that perfect, is set against weake. ] perfect: not the wisedome of this world, neither of the [Note: [f] They that are wiser, richer, or mightier, then other men are. ] princes of this world, which come to nought.
7 [Note:  Hee sheweth the cause why this wisedome can not bee perceiued of those excellent worldly wittes: to witte, because in deede it is so deepe, that they can not attaine vnto it. ] But we speake the wisedome of God in a [Note: [g] Which men coulde not so much as dreame of. ] mysterie, euen the hid wisedom, [Note:  Hee taketh away an obiection: If it bee so harde, when and howe is it knowen? God sayeth he, determined with himselfe from the beginning, that which his purpose was to bring foorth at this time out of his secretes, for the saluation of men. ] which God had determined before the world, vnto our glory.
8 [Note:  Hee taketh away another obiection: why then, howe commeth it to passe, that this wisedome was so reiected of men of hiest authoritie, that they crucified Christ himselfe? Paul answereth: Because they knewe not Christ such as hee was. ] Which none of the princes of this world hath knowen: for had they knowen it, they would not haue crucified the [Note: [h] That mightie God, full of true maiestie and glorie: Nowe this place hath in it a most euident proofe of the Diuinitie of Christ, and of his ioyning of the two natures in one, which hath this in it, that that which is proper to the manhoode alone, is vouched of the Godhead ioyned with the manhoode: which kinde of speach, is called of the olde fathers, a making common of thinges belonging to some one, with other to whome they doe not belong. ] Lord of glory.
[The naturall man.]
9 [Note:  An other obiection: But howe could it bee that those wittie men could not perceiue this wisdom? Paul answereth: Because wee preach those thinges which passe all mans vnderstanding. ] But as it is written, [Note: Esa.64.4. ] The thinges which eye hath not seene, neither eare hath heard, neither came into [Note: [i] Man can not so much as thinke of them, much lesse conceiue them with his senses. ] mans heart, are, which God hath prepared for them that loue him.
10 [Note:  A question: If it surmount the capacitie of men, how can it be vnderstoode of any man, or howe can you declare and preach it? by a peculiar lightning by Gods Spirite, wherewith whosoeuer is inspired, he can enter euen to the verie secretes of God. ] But God hath reueiled them vnto vs by his Spirit: for the spirit [Note: [k] There is nothing so secrete and hidden in God, but the Spirit of God pearceth into it. ] searcheth all things, yea, the deepe things of God.
11 [Note:  He setteth that foorth by a similitude, which he spake of the inspiration of the Spirit. As the force of mans wit searcheth out things pertaining to man, so doeth our minde by that power of the holy Ghost, vnderstand heauenly things. ] For what man knoweth the things of a man, saue the [Note: [l] The minde of man which is indued with the ablenes to vnderstande and iudge. ] spirite of a man, which is in him? euen so the things of God knoweth no man, but the spirit of God.
12 Nowe we haue receiued not the [Note: [m] The Spirite which we haue receiued, doeth not teach vs things of this worlde, but lifteth vs vp to God: and this place teacheth vs against the Papistes, what faith is, from whence it commeth, and what force it is of. ] spirit of the world, but the Spirit, which is of God, [Note:  That which he spake generally, hee restraineth nowe to those thinges which God hath opened vnto vs of our saluation in Christ: lest that any man shoulde separate the Spirit from the preaching of the word & Christ: or should thinke that those fantastical men are gouerned by the Spirit of God, which wandring besides the word, thrust vpon vs their vaine imaginations for the secrets of God. ] that we might [Note: [n] This word (know) is taken here in his proper sense, for true knowledge, which the Spirit of God worketh in vs. ] knowe the thinges that are giuen to vs of God.
13 [Note:  Nowe he returneth to his purpose, and concludeth the argument which he began verse 6. and it is thus: the wordes must be applied to the matter, and the matter must be set forth with words which are meete & conuenient for it: now this wisdom is spiritual and not of man, and therefore it must be deliuered by a spiritual kinde of teaching, and not by entising wordes of mans eloquence, that the simple, and yet wonderfull maiestie of the holy Ghost may therein appeare. ] Which things also we speake, not in the [Note: Cha.1.17. 2 pet.1.16. ] woordes which mans wisedome teacheth, but which the holy Ghost teacheth, [Note: [o] Applying the words vnto the matter, to wit, that as we teach spirituall thinges, so must our kinde of teaching be spirituall. ] comparing spirituall things with spirituall things.
14 [Note:  Againe he preuenteth an offence or stumbling blocke: Howe commeth it to passe that so fewe alowe these things? This is not to be marueiled at, saith the Apostle, seeing that men in their naturall powers (as they termed them) are not indued with that facultie whereby spirituall thinges are discerned (which facultie commeth another way) and therefore they accompt spirituall wisedom as follie: and it is as if he should say, It is no maruaile that blinde men can not iudge of colours, seeing that they lacke the light of their eyes, and therefore light is to them as darkenes. ] But the [Note: [p] The man that hath no further light of vnderstanding, then that which he brought with him, euen fro his mothers wombe, as Iude defineth it, Iude 19. ] naturall man perceiueth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishnesse vnto him: neither can hee knowe them, because they are [Note: [q] By the vertue of the holy Ghost. ] spiritually discerned.
15 [Note:  He amplifieth the matter by contraries. ] But hee that is spirituall, [Note: [r] Vnderstandeth and discerneth. ] discerneth all things: yet [Note:  The wisdom of the flesh, sayth Paul, determineth nothing certainely, no not in it owne affaires, much lesse can it discerne strange, that is, spirituall things. But the Spirit of God wherewith spirituall men are indued, can be deceiued by no meanes, & therefore be reprooued of no man. ] he himselfe is iudged of [Note: [s] Of no man: for when the Prophets are iudged of the Prophets, it is the Spirite that iudgeth, and not the man. ] no man.
16 [Note: Esai.40. 13. rom.11.34. ] [Note:  A reason of the former saying: for he is called spiritual, which hath learned that by the vertue of the Spirit, which Christ hath taught vs. Now if that which we haue learned of yt Master, could be reproued of any man, he must needes be wiser then God: whereupon it followeth, that they are not only foolish, but also wicked, which thinke that they can deuise some thing that is either more perfect, or that they can teach the wisdome of God a better way then they knewe or taught, which vndoubtedly were indued with Gods Spirite. ] For who hath knowen the minde of the Lorde, that hee might [Note: [t] Lay his head to his, and teach him what hee should doe. ] instruct him? But we haue the [Note: [u] Wee are indued with the spirit of Christ, who openeth vnto vs those secrets, which by all other meanes are vnsearcheable, and also all trueth whatsoeuer. ] minde of Christ.
1 Hee yeeldeth a reason why hee preached small matters vnto them: 4 Hee sheweth howe they ought to esteeme of ministers: 6 The ministers office. 10 A true forme of edifying. 16 He warneth the Corinthians, yt they be not drawne away to prophane things, 18 through the proud wisdome of ye flesh.
[Christ the foundation.]
1 And [Note:  Hauing declared the worthinesse of heauenly wisdom, & of the Gospel, & hauing generally condemned the blindenes of mans minde, nowe at length he applieth it particularly to ye Corinthians, calling them carnal, yt is, such in whome as yet the flesh preuaileth against the Spirite. And hee bringeth a double testimonie of it: first, for that he had proued them to be such, in so much that hee dealt with them no otherwise then wt ignorant men, and such as are almost babes in the doctrine of godlines: and secondly, because they shewed in deede by these dissensions, which sprag vp by reason of the ignorance of the vertue of the Spirit, and heauenly wisdom, that they had profited very litle or nothing. ] I could not speake vnto you, brethren, as vnto spirituall men, but as vnto [Note: [a] He calleth them carnal, which are as yet ignorant, and therefore to expresse it the better, he termeth them babes. ] carnall, euen as vnto babes in Christ.
2 I gaue you milke to drinke, & not [Note: [b] Substantial meat, or strong meat. ] meat: for yee were not yet [Note: [c] To be fed by me with substantial meat: therefore as the Corinthians grew vp in age, so the Apostle nourished them by teaching, first with milke, then with strog meat, which difference was onely but in the maner of teaching. ] able to beare it, neither yet nowe are yee able.
3 For yee are yet carnall: for whereas there is among you enuying, and strife, and diuisions, are ye not carnall, and walke as [Note: [d] By the square & compas of mans wit and iudgement. ] men?
4 For when one sayeth, I am Pauls, and another, I am Apollos, are yee not carnall?
5 [Note:  After that he hath sufficiently reprehended ambitious teachers and their foolish esteemers, now he sheweth how the true ministers are to be esteemed, yt we attribute not vnto them, more or les then we ought to do. Therefore he teacheth vs, yt they are they by whom we are brought to faith and saluation, but yet as the ministers of God, & such as do nothing of theselues, but God so working by them as it pleaseth him to furnish them with his gifts. Therfore we haue not to marke or cosider what minister it is yt speaketh, but what is spoken: & we must depend only vpon him which speaketh by his seruants. ] Who is Paul then? and who is Apollos, but the ministers by whome yee beleeued, and as the Lord gaue to euery man?
6 [Note:  He beautifieth the former sentence, with two similitudes: first coparing the company of the faithful, to a field which God maketh fruitful, when it is sowed & watred through the labour of his seruants: next, by comparing it to an house, which in deede the Lord buildeth, but by the hands of his workmen, some of whom, he vseth in laying the foundation, others in building of it vp. Now, both these similitudes tend to this purpose to shew that al things are wholly accomplished by Gods onely authority and might, so yt we must onely haue an eye to him. Moreouer, although yt God vseth some in the better part of the woorke, we must not therefore contemne other, in respect of them, & much lesse may we deuide or set them apart, (as these factious men did) seeing that al of them labour in Gods busines, and in such sort, that they serue to finish one selfe same woorke, although by a diuers maner of woorking, in so much that they neede one anothers helpe. ] I haue planted, Apollos watred, but God gaue the increase.
7 So then, neither is hee that planteth any thing, neither hee that watreth, but God that giueth the increase.
8 And he that planteth, and he that watreth, are one, [Note: Psa.62.12. gal.6.5. ] and euery man shall receiue his wages, according to his labour.
9 For we together are Gods [Note: [e] Seruing vnder him: Now they which serue vnder an other, doe nothing of their owne strength, but as it is giuen them by grace, which grace maketh them fit to that seruice. Looke chap. 15.10. & 2.cor.3.6. & all the increase that commeth by their labour, doeth so proceede from God, that no part of the praise of it may be giuen to the vnder seruat. ] labourers: yee are Gods husbandrie, and Gods building.
10 According to the grace of God giuen to mee, as a skilfull master builder, I haue laide the foundation, & another buildeth thereon: [Note:  Now he speaketh to the teachers the selues, which succeeded him in the Church of Corinth, & in their person, to all yt were after or shalbe Pastours of Congregations, seeing that they succeede into the labour of the Apostles, which were planters and chiefe builders. Therefore hee warneth them first, that they perswade not themselues that they may build after their owne fantasie, that is, that they may propounde and set foorth any thing in the Church, either in matter, or in kinde of teaching, different from the Apostles which were the chiefe builders. ] but let euery man take heede how he buildeth vpon it.
11 [Note:  Moreouer, he sheweth what this foundation is, to wit, Christ Iesus, from which they may not turne away one iote in the building vp of this building. ] For other foundation can no man laie, then that which is laied, which is Iesus Christ.
12 [Note:  Thirdly hee sheweth, that they must take heede that the vpper part of the building be answerable to the foundation, that is, that admonitions, exhortations, and whatsoeuer pertaineth to the edifying of the flocke, bee answerable to the doctrine of Christ, as well in matter as in forme: which doctrine is compared to gold, siluer, & precious stones: of which matter, Esaias also and Iohn in the Reuelation builde the heauenly citie. And to these are opposite, wood, hay, stubble, that is to say, curious and vaine questions or decrees: and besides to be short, all that kinde of teaching which serueth to ostentation. For false doctrines, where of he speaketh not here, are not sayde properly to be built vpon this foundation, vnlesse peraduenture in shewe onely. ] And if any man builde on this foundation,
golde, siluer, precious stones, timber, haye, or stubble,
13 [Note:  He testifieth, as in deede the trueth is, that all are not good builders, no not some of them which stand vpon this one and onely foundation: but howsoeuer this worke of euill builders, saith he, stand for a season, yet shall it not alwayes deceiue, because that the light of the trueth appearing at length as day, shal dissolue this darkenesse, and shewe what it is. And as that stuffe is tryed by the fire, whether it be good or not, so wil God in his time by the touch of his Spirit and worde trie all buildings, and so shal it come to passe, that such as be found pure and sound, shall still continue so, to the praise of the workman: but they that are otherwise, shall be consumed and vanish away, and so shall the workeman be frustrate of the hope of his labour, which pleased himselfe in a thing of nought. ] Euery mans worke shalbe made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shalbe reueiled by the fire: and the fire shall trie euery mans worke of what sort it is.
14 If any mans worke, that he hath built vpon, abide, he shall receiue wages.
15 If any mans worke burne, he shall lose, but [Note:  He taketh not away hope of saluation from the vnskilfull and foolish builders, which hold fast the foundation, of which sort were those Rhetoricians rather then pastours of Corinth: but he addeth an exception, that they must notwithstanding suffer this tryall of their worke, and also abide the losse of their vaine labours. ] he shalbe saued himselfe: neuerthelesse yet as it were by the fire.
16 [Note: Chap.6.19.2. cor.6.16. ] [Note:  Continuing still in the metaphore of a building, he teacheth vs that this ambition is not only vaine, but also sacrilegious: For he saith that the Church is as it were the temple of God, which God hath as it were consecrated vnto himselfe by his Spirite. Then turning himselfe to these ambitious men, he sheweth that they prophane the temple of God, because those vaine artes wherein they please themselues so much, are as he teacheth, so many pollutions of the holy doctrine of God, and the puritie of the Church. Which wickednesse shall not be suffered vnpunished. ] Knowe ye not that ye are the Temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?
17 If any man [Note: [f] Defileth it and maketh it vncleane, being holy: and surely they do defile it, by Paul his iudgement, which by fleshly eloquence defile the puritie of the Gospel. ] destroy the Temple of God, him shall God destroy: for the Temple of God is holy, which ye are.
18 [Note:  He concludeth by the contrary, that they professe pure wisdome in the Church of God which refuse and cast away all those vanities of men: and if they be mocked of the world, it is sufficient for them that they be wise according to the wisdome of God, and as he will haue them to be wise. ] Let no man deceiue himselfe: If any man among you seeme to be wise in this world, let him be a foole, that he may be wise.
19 For the wisdome of this worlde is foolishnesse with God: for it is written, [Note: Iob.5.13. ] He [Note: [g] Be they neuer so craftie, yet the Lord will take them when he shall discouer their trecherie. ] catcheth the wise in their owne craftinesse.
20 [Note: Psal.44.11. ] And againe, The Lord knoweth that the thoughtes of the wise be vaine.
21 [Note:  He returneth to the proposition of the 2. verse, first warning the hearers, that henceforwarde they esteeme not as Lordes, those whom God hath appointed to be ministers and not Lordes of their saluation: which thing they doe, that depend vpon men, and not vpon God that speaketh by them. ] Therefore let no man [Note: [h] Please himselfe. ] reioyce in men: for all things are [Note: [i] Helpes, appointed for your benefite. ] yours.
22 Whether it be Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the [Note:  He passeth from the persons, to the things themselues, that his argument may be more forcible: yea he ascendeth from Christ to the Father, to shewe that we rest our selues no not in Christ himselfe, in that that he is man, but because he carieth vs vp euen to the Father, as Christ witnesseth of himselfe euery where, that he was sent of his Father, that by this band we may be all knit with God himselfe. ] world, or life, or death: whether they be things present, or thinges to come, euen all are yours,
23 And ye Christes, and Christ Gods.
1 Bringing in the definition of a true Apostle, 7 he sheweth that humilitie ought rather to be an honour then a shame vnto him. 9 He bringeth in proofe, whereby it may euidently appeare, 10 that he neither had care of glorie, 11 nor of his bellie. 17 He commendeth Timothie.
1 Let [Note:  He concludeth the duetie of the hearers towardes their ministers: that they esteeme them not as Lordes: and yet notwithstanding that they giue eare vnto them, as to them that are sent from Christ, sent I say to this end and purpose, that they may receiue as it were at their hands, the treasure of saluation which is drawen out of the secrets of God ] a [Note: [a] Euery man. ] man so thinke of vs, as of the ministers of Christ, and disposers of the secrets of God:
2 [Note:  Last of all, he warneth the ministers, that they also behaue themselues not as Lordes, but as faithfull seruants, because they must render an accompt of their stewardship vnto God. ] And as for the rest, it is required of the
disposers, that euery man be found faithfull.
3 [Note:  Because in reprehending others, he set himselfe for an example, he vseth a preoccupation, or preuenting of an obiection, and vsing the grauitie of an Apostle, he sheweth that he careth not for the contrary iudgements that they haue of him, in that they esteemed him as a vile person, because he did not set foorth himselfe as they did. And he bringeth good reasons why he was nothing moued with the iudgements which they had of him. ] As touching me, I passe very litle to be iudged of you, [Note:  First, because that, that which men iudge in these cases of their owne braines, is no more to be accompted of, then when the vnlearned doe iudge of wisdome. ] or of mans [Note: [b] Word for word, Day, after the maner of speache of the Cilicians. ] iudgement: no, [Note:  Secondly, saith he, howe can you iudge howe much or howe litle I am to be accounted of, seeing that I my selfe which knowe my selfe better then you doe, and which dare professe that I haue walked in my vocation with a good conscience, dare not yet notwithstanding chalenge any thing to my selfe: for I knowe that I am not vnblameable, all this notwithstanding: much lesse therefore shoulde I please my selfe as you doe. ] I iudge not mine owne selfe.
4 For I know nothing by my selfe, yet am I not thereby iustified: but he that iudgeth me, is the [Note: [c] I permit my selfe to the Lordes iudgement. ] Lord.
5 [Note:  A third reason proceeding of a conclusion as it were, out of the former reasons. It is Gods office to esteeme euery man according to his value, because he knoweth the secretes of the heart, which men for the most part are ignorant of. Therefore this iudgement perteineth not to you. ] Therefore [Note: Matth.7.1. ] iudge nothing before the time, vntill the Lorde come, who will lighten things that are hid in darkenesse, and make the counsels of the hearts manifest: and then shall euery man haue [Note: [d] One coulde not be praised aboue the rest, but the other shoulde be blamed: and he mentioneth praise rather then dispraise, for that the beginning of this sore was this, that they gaue more to some men, then meete was. ] praise of God.
6 [Note:  Hauing reiected their iudgement, he setteth foorth himselfe againe as a singular example of modestie, as one which concealing in this Epistle those factious teachers names, doubted not to put downe his owne name and Apollos in their place, and tooke vpon him, as it were, their shame: so farre was he from preferring him selfe to any. ] Nowe these things, brethren, I haue figuratiuely applied vnto mine owne selfe and Apollos, for your sakes, that ye might learne [Note: [e] By our example, which chose rather to take other mens faultes vpon vs, then to carpe any by name. ] by vs, that no man presume aboue that which is written, that one swell not against another for any mans cause.
7 [Note:  He sheweth a good meanes to bridle pride: first if thou consider howe rightly thou exemptest thy selfe out of the nomber of others, seeing thou art a man thy selfe: againe, if thou consider that although thou haue some thing more then other men haue, yet thou hast it not but by Gods bountifulnesse. And what wise man is he that will bragge of an others goodnesse, and that against God? ] For who separateth thee? and what hast thou, that thou hast not receiued? if thou hast receiued it, why reioycest thou, as though [Note: [f] There is nothing then in vs of nature, that is worthie of commendation: but all that we haue, we haue it of grace, which the Pelagians and halfe Pelagians will not confesse. ] thou haddest not receiued it?
8 [Note:  Hee descendeth to a most graue mocke, to cause those ambitious men to blush euen against their willes. ] Nowe ye are full: nowe ye are made rich: ye reigne as kings without vs, and would to God ye did reigne, that we also might reigne with you.
9 For I thinke that God hath set forth vs the last Apostles, as men appointed to death: for we are made a [Note: [g] He that will take a right viewe how like Paul and the Pope are, who lyingly boasteth that he is his successour, let him compare the delicates of the Popish court, with Saint Pauls state as we see it here. ] gasing stocke vnto the worlde, and to the Angels, and to men.
10 We are fooles for Christes sake, and ye are wise in Christ: we are weake, and ye are strong: ye are honourable, and we are despised.
11 Vnto this houre we both hunger, & thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and haue no certaine dwelling place,
12 [Note: Actes 20.34. 1. thes. 2.9. 2.thessa 3.8. ] And labour, working with our owne handes: we are reuiled, and yet we blesse: we are persecuted, and suffer it.
13 [Note: Matth.5.44. luke 23. 34. actes 7.60. ] We are euill spoken of, and we pray: we are made as the [Note: [h] Such as by sweeping is gathered together. ] filth of the world, the offskowring of all things, vnto this time.
14 [Note:  Moderating the sharpenesse of his mocke, he putteth them in minde to remember of whom they were begotten in Christ, and that they shoulde not doubt to followe him for an example, although he seeme vile according to the outward shewe in respect of others, yet mightie by the efficacie of Gods Spirit, as they had had tryall thereof in themselues. ] I write not these things to shame you, but as my beloued children I admonish you.
15 For though ye haue tenne thousand instructours [Page]
[The kingdome of God.]
in Christ, yet haue ye not many fathers: for in Christ Iesus I haue begotten you through the Gospel.
16 Wherefore, I pray you, be ye folowers of me.
17 For this cause haue I sent vnto you Timotheus, which is my beloued sonne, and faithfull in the Lord, which shall put you in remembrance of my [Note: [i] What way and rule I folowe euery where in teaching the Churches. ] wayes in Christ as I teache euery where in euery Church.
18 [Note:  Last of all he descendeth also to Apostolike threatnings, but yet chiding them as a father, least by their disorder he be constrained to come to punish some amongst them. ] Some are puffed vp as though I woulde not come vnto you.
19 But I will come to you shortly, [Note: Actes 19.21. iames 4.15. ] if the Lorde will, and will knowe, not the [Note: [k] By wordes, he meaneth their painted and coloured kind of eloquence, against which he setteth the vertue of the Spirit. ] wordes of them which are puffed vp, but the power.
20 For the kingdome of God is not in worde, but in power.
21 [Note:  A passing ouer to an other part of this Epistle, wherein he reprehendeth most sharpely a very haynous offence, shewing the vse of ecclesiasticall correction. ] What will ye? shall I come vnto you with a rod, or in loue, & in ye [Note: [l] Meekely affected towardes you. ] spirite of meekenes?
1 That they haue winked at him who committed incest with his mother in Lawe, 2. 6 he sheweth shoulde cause them rather to be ashamed, then to reioyce: 10 Such kinde of wickednesse is to be punished with excommunication, 12 lest other be infected with it.
1 It [Note:  They are greatly to be reprehended which by suffering of wickednesse, set foorth the Church of God to be mocked and scorned of the infidels. ] is heard certainely that there is fornication among you: and such fornication as is not once named among the Gentiles, that one should haue his fathers wife.
2 [Note:  There are none more proude, then they that least know themselues. ] And ye are puffed vp and haue not rather sorowed, that he which hath done this deede, might be put from among you.
3 [Note:  Excommunication ought not to be committed to one mans power, but must be done by the authoritie of the whole Congregation, after that the matter is diligently examined. ] For I verely as absent in bodie, but present in [Note: [a] In minde, thought and will. ] spirit, haue determined already as though I were present, that he that hath thus done this thing,
4 When ye are gathered together, and my spirit, in the [Note: [b] Calling vpon Christ his Name. ] Name of our Lord Iesus Christ, that such one, I say, [Note:  There is no doubt but that iudgement is ratified in heauen, wherein Christ himselfe sitteth as Iudge. ] by the power of our Lord Iesus Christ,
5 [Note:  The excommunicate is deliuered to the power of Satan, in that, that he is cast out of the house of God. ] Be [Note: [c] What it is to be deliuered to Satan, the Lord himselfe declareth when he sayeth, Let him be vnto thee as an Heathen and Publicane, Matth.18.17. that is to say, to be disfranchised and put out of the right and libertie of the citie of Christ, which is the Church, without which Satan is lord and master. ] deliuered vnto Satan, for the [Note:  The end of excommunication is not to cast away the excommunicate, that he should vtterly perish, but that he may be saued, to wit, that by this meanes his flesh may be tamed, that he may learne to liue to the Spirit. ] destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saued in the day of the Lord Iesus.
6 [Note:  An other ende of excommunication is, that other be not infected, & therefore it must of necessitie be retained in the Church, that the one be not infected by the other. ] Your reioycing [Note: [d] Is naught, and not grounded vpon good reason, as though your were excellent, and yet there is such wickednesse found amongst you. ] is not good: knowe ye not that a litle leauen, leaueneth ye whole lumpe?
7 [Note:  By alluding to the ceremonie of the Passeouer, he exhorteth them to cast out that vncleane person from amongst them. In times past, saith he, it was not lawfull for them which did celebrate the Passeouer, to eate leauened bread: Insomuch that he was holden as vncleane and vnworthy to eate the Passeouer, whosoeuer had but tasted of leauen. Now all our whole life must be as it were the feast of vnleauened bread, wherein all they that are partakers of that immaculate Lambe which is slaine, must cast out both of themselues, and also out of their houses and Congregations all impuritie. ] Purge out therefore the olde leauen, that ye may be a newe [Note: [e] By lumpe he meaneth the whole body of the Church, euery member whereof must be vnleauened bread, that is, be renewed in Spirite, by plucking away the olde corruption. ] lumpe, as ye are vnleauened: for Christ our [Note: [f] The Lambe of our Passeouer. ] Passeouer is sacrificed for vs.
8 Therefore let vs keepe the [Note: [g] Let vs leade our whole life, as it were a continuall feast, honestly, and vprightly. ] feast, not with
[Of going to lawe.]
olde leauen, neither in the leauen of maliciousnes and wickednesse: but with the vnleauened bread of synceritie and trueth.
9 [Note:  Nowe he speaketh more generally: and that which he spake before of the incestuous person, he sheweth that it perteineth to others, which are knowen to be wicked, and such as through their naughtie life are a slaunder to the Church, which ought also by lawfull order be cast out of the communitie of the Church. And making mention of eating of meate, eyther he meaneth those feastes of loue, whereat the Supper of the Lord was receiued, or else their common vsage and maner of life: which is rightly to be taken, lest any man shoulde thinke, that eyther matrimonie were broken by excommunication, or such dueties hindered and cut off thereby, as we owe one to another: children to their parents, subiectes to their rulers, seruauntes to their masters, and neighbour to neighbour to winne one an other vnto God. ] I wrote vnto you in an Epistle, that ye should not companie together with fornicatours,
10 And not [Note: [h] If you shoulde vtterly absteine from such mens companie, you should goe out of the world: therefore I speake of them which are in the very bosome of the Church, which must be called home by discipline, and not of them which are without, with whom you must labour by all meanes possible, to bring them to Christ. ] altogether with the fornicatours of this world, or with the couetous, or with extorsioners, or with idolaters: for then ye must goe out of the world.
11 But nowe I haue written vnto you, that ye companie not together: if any that is called a brother, be a fornicatour, or couetous, or an idolater, or a rayler, or a drunkard, or an extorsioner, with such one eate not.
12 [Note:  Such as are false brethren, ought to be cast out of the Congregation: as for them which are without, they must be left to the iudgement of God. ] For what haue I to doe, to iudge them also which are without? doe ye not iudge them that are within?
13 But God iudgeth them that are without. Put away therefore from among your selues that wicked man.
1 He inueigheth against their contentions in lawe matters, 6 wherewith they vexed one another vnder iudges that were infidels, to the reproche of the Gospel, 9 and then sharpely threatneth fornicatours.
1 Dare [Note:  The third question is of ciuill iudgements. Whether it be lawfull for one faithfull to drawe another faithful before the iudgement seate of an infidell? He answereth that it is not lawfull, for offence sake, for it is not euill of it selfe. ] [Note: [a] As if he said, Are you become so impudent that you are not ashamed to make the Gospel a laughing stocke to prophane men? ] any of you, hauing businesse against an other, be iudged [Note: [b] Before the vniust. ] vnder the vniust, [Note:  He addeth that he doeth not forbid that one neighbour may go to law with another if neede so require, but yet vnder holy iudges. ] and not vnder the Saintes?
2 [Note:  He gathereth by a comparison that the faithfull cannot seeke to infidels to be iudged, without great iniurie done to the Saints, seeing that God himselfe wil make the Saints iudges of the world and of the deuils, with his sonne Christ: much more ought they to iudge these light and small causes which may be by equitie & good conscience determined. ] Doe ye not knowe, that the Saintes shall iudge the worlde? If the worlde then shalbe iudged by you, are ye vnworthie to iudge the smallest matters?
3 Knowe ye not that we shall iudge the Angels? howe much more, things that perteine to this life?
4 [Note:  The conclusion, wherein he prescribeth a remedy for this mischief: to wit, if they end their priuate affaires betwixt theselues by chosen arbiters out of ye Church: for which matter & purpose, ye least of you, saith he, is sufficiet. Therefore he codemneth not iudgement seates, but sheweth what is expedient for ye circumstance of the time, & that without any diminishing of the right of the Magistrate: for he speaketh not of iudgements, which are practised betweene the faithfull & the infidels, neither of publike iudgements, but of controuersies which may be ended by priuate arbiters. ] If then ye haue [Note: [c] Courts & places of iudgemet. ] iudgements of things perteining to this life, set vp them which are [Note: [d] Euen the most abiect among you. ] least esteemed in the Church.
5 [Note:  He applieth ye generall proposition to a particular, alwaies calling them back to this, to take away from them yt false opinion of their owne excellencie, from whence all these mischiefes sprang. ] I speake it to your shame. Is it so that there is not a wise man among you? no not one, that can iudge betweene his brethren?
6 But a brother goeth to law with a brother, and that vnder the infidels.
7 [Note:  Nowe he goeth further also, and although by granting them priuate arbiters out of the congregation of the faithfull, he do not simplie condemne, but rather establish priuate iudgements, so that they be exercised without offence, yet he sheweth that if they were such as they ought to be, and as it were to be wished, they shoulde not neede to vse that remedie neither. ] Nowe therefore there is altogether
[Note: [e] A weakenesse of minde which is saide to be in them, that suffer themselues to be ouercome of their lusts, and it is a fault that squareth greatly from temperancie and moderation: so that he nippeth them which coulde not put vp an iniurie done vnto them. ] infirmitie in you, in that yee goe to lawe one with another: [Note:  This perteineth chiefly to ye other part of the reprehension, to wit, that they went to lawe euen vnder infidels, whereas they shoulde rather haue suffered any losse, then to haue giuen that offence. But yet this is generally true, yt wee ought rather depart fro our right, then trie the vttermost of the lawe hastily, and vpon an affection to reuenge an iniurie. But the Corinthians cared for neither, and therefore he sayth that they must repent, vnlesse they wil be shut out of the inheritance of God. ] [Note: Mat.5.39. luk.6.29. rom.12.19. ] why rather suffer ye not wrong? why rather susteine yee not harme?
8 [Note: 1.Thessal.4.6. ] Nay, yee your selues doe wrong, and doe harme, and that to your brethren.
9 Knowe yee not that the vnrighteous shall not inherite the kingdome of God? [Note:  Nowe hee prepareth himselfe to passe ouer to the fourth treatise of this Epistle, which concerneth matters indifferent: debating this matter first, howe men may well vse women or not: which question hath three branches, fornication, matrimonie, and a single life. As for fornication, hee vtterly condemneth it. And marriage he commandeth to some, as a good and necessarie remedie for them, to other he leaueth it free: And other some he dissuadeth from it, not as vnlawfull, but as discommodious, and that not without exception. As for singlenes of life (vnder which also I comprehend virginitie) he inioyneth it to no man: yet hee persuadeth men vnto it, but not for it selfe, but for another respect, neither all men, nor without exception. And being about to speake against fornication he beginneth with a generall reprehesion of those vices, wherewith that rich and riotous citie most abounded: warning and teaching them earnestly, that repentance is vnseparably ioyned with forgiuenes of sinnes, and sanctification with iustification. ] Be not deceiued: neither fornicatours, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor wantons, nor buggerers,
10 Nor theeues, nor couetous, nor drunkards, nor railers, nor extortioners shall inherite the kingdome of God.
11 And such were [Note: Tit.3.3. ] some of you: but yee are washed, but yee are sanctified, but yee are iustified in the [Note: [f] In Iesus. ] Name of the Lorde Iesus, and by the Spirit of our God.
12 ¶ [Note: Chap 10.23. ] [Note:  Secondly, he sheweth that the Corinthians doe simply offend in matters indifferent: First, because they abused them: next, because they vsed indifferent things, without any discretion, seeing the vse of them ought to be brought to the rule of charitie: and that hee doeth not vse them aright, which immoderately abuseth them and so becommeth a slaue vnto them. ] [Note: [g] Whatsoeuer: but this general word must be restrained to things that are indifferent. ] All thinges are lawfull vnto mee, but all thinges are not profitable. I may doe all things, but I will not be brought vnder the [Note: [h] Hee is in subiection to thinges that are indifferet, whatsoeuer he be that thinketh he may not be without the, which is a flattering kinde of slauery vnder a colour of liberty, which seaseth vpo such men. ] power of any thing.
13 [Note:  Secondarily, because they counted many things for indifferent, which were of themselues vnlawful, as fornication, which they numbred amongst mere natural & lawful desires, as well as meat and drinke: Therefore the Apostle sheweth, that they are vtterly vnlike: for meats saith he, were made for the necessary vse of mans life which is not perpetuall. For both meats, & all this maner of nourishing, are quickly abolished. But we must not so thinke of the vncleannes of fornicatio, for which the body is not made, but on the contrary side is ordeined to purenes, as appeareth by this, that it is consecrated to Christ, eue as Christ also is giuen vs of his father, to quicken our bodies wt that vertue, wherewith he also rose againe. ] Meates are ordeined for the bellie, & the belly for the meates: but God shall destroy both it, and them. Nowe the bodie is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the bodie.
14 And God hath also raised vp the Lord, and [Note: Rom.6.5. ] shall raise vs vp by his power.
15 [Note:  A declaration of the former argument by contraries, and the applying of it. ] Knowe yee not, that your bodies are the members of Christ? shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? God forbid.
16 [Note:  A proofe of the same argument: A harlot and Christ are cleane contrary, so are the flesh and the Spirite: therefore he that is one with an harlot, (which is done by carnal copulation of their bodies) can not be one with Christ, which vnitie is pure and spirituall. ] Doe ye not knowe, that he which coupleth himselfe with an harlot, is one body? [Note: Gen.2.24. mat.19.5. mar.10.8. ephes.5.31. ] for [Note: [i] Moses doeth not speake these woordes of fornication, but of marriage: but seeing that fornication is the corrupting of marriage, and both of them is a carnall & fleshly copulation, we can not say that the Apostle abuseth his testimonie. Againe, Moses hath not this woorde (Two) but it is very well expressed both here, and in Matth. 19.5. because he speaketh only but of man and wife: whereupon the opinion of them that vouche it to be lawfull to haue many wiues, is beaten downe: for hee that companieth with many, is sundred as it were into many partes. ] two, sayeth he, shalbe one flesh.
17 But hee that is ioyned vnto the Lorde, is one spirite.
18 [Note:  An other argument why fornication is to bee eschewed, because it defileth the bodie with a peculiar kinde of filthines. ] Flee fornication: euery sinne that a man doeth, is without the bodie: but hee that committeth fornication, sinneth against his owne bodie.
19 [Note:  The thirde argument: Because a fornicatour is sacrilegious, for that our bodies are consecrate to God. ] Knowe yee not, that [Note: Chap.3.17. 2.cor.6.16. ] your body is the temple of the holy Ghost, which is in you, whom ye haue of God? and [Note:  The fourth argument: Because we are not our owne men, to giue our selues to any other, much lesse to Satan and the flesh, seeing that God himselfe hath bought vs, and that with a great price, to the ende that both in body and soule, wee should serue to his glorie. ] yee are not your owne.
20 [Note: Chap.7.23. 1.pet.1.18. ] For yee are bought for a price: therefore glorifie God in your bodie, and in your spirit: for they are Gods.
1 Entreating here of marriage, 4 which is a remedie against fornication, 10 and may not be broken, 18. 20 hee willeth euery man to liue contented with his lotte. 25 Hee sheweth what the end of virginitie should be, 35 and who ought to marrie.
1 Nowe [Note:  Hee teacheth concerning marriage, that although a single life hath his commodities, which he will declare afterwards, yet that marriage is necessarie for the auoiding of fornication: but so that neither one man may haue many wiues, nor any wife many husbands. ] concerning the thinges [Note: [a] Touching those matters, whereof you wrote vnto me. ] whereof ye wrote vnto mee, It were [Note: [b] Commodious, and (as we say) expedient. For marriage bringeth many griefes with it, and that by reason of the corruption of our first estate. ] good for a man not to touche a woman.
2 Neuertheles, to auoide fornication, let euery man haue his wife, and let euery woman haue her owne husband.
3 [Note: 1.Pet.3.7. ] [Note:  Secondly, hee sheweth that the parties married, must with singular affection, entirely loue one the other. ] Let the husbande giue vnto the wife [Note: [c] This woorde (due) conteineth all kinde of beneuolence, though hee speake more of one sort then of ye other, in that that followeth. ] due beneuolence, and likewise also the wife vnto the husband.
4 [Note:  Thirdly, hee warneth them, that they are each in others power, as touching the body, so that they may not defraude one another. ] The wife hath not the power of her owne bodie, but ye husband: & likewise also the husband hath not ye power of his own body, but the wife.
5 Defraude not one another, [Note:  Hee addeth an exception, vnlesse the one absteine from the other by mutuall consent, that they may the better giue themselues to praier, wherein notwithstanding hee warneth them to consider what is expedient, least by this long breaking off as it were from marriage, they be stirred vp to incontinencie. ] except it be wt consent for a time, that ye may [Note: [d] Doe nothing else. ] giue your selues to fasting and praier, and againe come together that Satan tempt you not for your incontinecie.
6 [Note:  Fifthly, he teacheth, that marriage is not simplie necessarie for all men, but for them which haue not the gift of continencie, & this gift is by a peculiar grace of God. ] But I speake this by permission, not by commandement.
7 For I [Note: [e] I wish. ] woulde that all men were euen as I my selfe am: but euery man hath his proper gift of God, one after this maner, and another after that.
8 [Note:  Sixtly, hee giueth the selfe same admonition touching the seconde marriage, to witte, that a single life is, to bee allowed, but for such as haue the gift of continencie: otherwise they ought to marrie againe, that their conscience may be at peace. ] Therefore I say vnto the [Note: [f] This whole place is flatte against them which condemne seconde marriages. ] vnmaried, and vnto the widowes, It is good for them if they abide euen as I doe.
9 But if they cannot abstaine, let them marrie: for it is better to marrie then to [Note: [g] So to burne with lust, that either the will yeeldeth to the temptation, or els we can not call vpon God with a quiet conscience. ] burne.
10 [Note: Mat 5.32. & 19.9. mar.10.11,12. luke 16.18. ] [Note:  Seuenthly, he forbiddeth cotentions and publishing of diuorces (for he speaketh not here of the fault of whoredome, which was then death euen by the law of the Romanes also) whereby he affirmeth that the band of mariage is not dissolued, & that from Christ his mouth. ] And vnto ye maried I comand, not I, but ye Lord, Let not ye wife depart from her husband.
11 But and if shee depart, let her remaine vnmaried, or be reconciled vnto her husband, & let not the husband put away his wife.
12 [Note:  Eightly, he affirmeth, that those mariages which are already contracted betweene a faithful, and an vnfaithful or infidel, are firme: so that the faithfull may not forsake the vnfaithfull. ] But to ye remnant I speake, & not ye Lord, If any brother haue a wife, ye beleeueth not, if she be cotent to dwell wt him, let him not forsake her.
13 And the woman which hath an husbande that beleeueth not, if he be content to dwell with her, let her not forsake him.
[Of Circumcision and vncircumcision.]
14 [Note:  He answereth an obiection: But the faithfull is defiled by the societie of the vnfaithfull. The Apostle denieth that, and prooueth that the faithfull man with good conscience may vse the vessell of his vnfaithfull wife, by this, that their children which are borne of them, are accompted holie (that is, conteined within the promise) for it is saide to all the faithful, I will be thy God, and the God of thy seede. ] For the vnbeleeuing husband is [Note: [h] The godlinesse of the wife is of more force, to cause their coupling together to bee accompted holy, then the infidelitie of the husbande is, to prophane the marriage. ] sanctified to the [Note: [i] The infidel is not sanctified or made holy in his owne person, but in respect of his wife, he is sanctified to her. ] wife, and the vnbeleeuing wife is sanctified to the [Note: [k] To the faithfull husband. ] husbande, els were your children vncleane: but nowe are they [Note: [l] This place destroieth the opinion of them, that would not haue children to be baptized, and their opinion also, that make Baptisme the very cause of saluation. For the children of the faithfull are holy, by vertue of the couenant, euen before baptisme, & baptisme is added as the seale of that holinesse. ] holie.
15 [Note:  He answereth to a question: what if the vnfaithful forsake the faithful? then is ye faithful free, sayth he, because he is forsaken of the vnfaithfull. ] But if the vnbeleeuing depart, let him depart: a brother or a sister is not in subiection in [Note: [m] When any such thing falleth out. ] such things: [Note:  Least any man vpon preteuce of this libertie should giue occasion to the vnfaithful to depart, he giueth to vnderstand, that marriage contracted with an infidell, ought peaceably to be kept, that if it be possible the infidel may be wonne to the faith. ] but God hath called vs in peace.
16 For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt saue thine husband? Or what knowest thou, O man, whether thou shalt saue thy wife?
17 [Note:  Taking occasion by that which he sayde of the bondage and libertie of matrimonie, he digresseth to a generall doctrine concerning the outwarde state and condition of mans life, as Circumcision and vncircumcision, seruitude and libertie: warning euery man generally to liue with a contented minde in the Lorde, what state or condition so euer he be in, because, that those outwarde thinges, as to be circumcised or vncircumcised, to be bonde or free, are not of the substance (as they terme it) of the kingdome of heauen. ] But as God hath distributed to euery man, as the Lorde hath [Note: [n] Hath bound him to a certaine kinde of life. ] called euery one, so let him walke: and so ordaine I, in all Churches.
18 [Note:  Notwithstanding he giueth vs to vnderstand, that in these examples all are not of like sort: because that circumcision is not simplie of it selfe to be desired, but such as are bound may desire to be free. Therefore herein onely they are equall, that the kingdome of God consisteth not in them, and therefore these are no hinderance to obey God. ] Is any man called being circumcised? let him not [Note: [o] He is said to gather his vncircumcision, who by the helpe of a Chirurgian, recouereth an vpper skinne: which is done by drawing the skinne with an instrument, to make it to couer the nutte. Cels. in his 7.booke & 25.Chapter. ] gather his vncircumcision: is any called vncircumcised? let him not be circumcised.
19 Circumcision is nothing, and vncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandements of God.
20 [Note: 1.Tim.6.1. ] Let euery man abide in the same vocation wherein he was called.
21 Art thou called being a seruant? [Note: [p] As though this calling were too vnworthie a calling for Christ. ] care not for it: but if yet thou maiest be free, vse it rather.
22 For he that is called in the [Note: [q] He that is in state of a seruant, and is called to be a Christian. ] Lorde, being. a seruant, is the Lords freeman: likewise also he that is called being free, is Christes seruant.
23 [Note: Chap.6.20. 1.pet.18.19. ] [Note:  He sheweth the reason of the vnlikenes, because that he that desireth to be circumcised, maketh himselfe subiect to mans tradition, & not to God. And this may be much more vnderstood of superstitions, which some do foolishly accompt for things indifferent. ] Yee are bought with a price: be not the seruants of men.
24 [Note:  A repetition of the general doctrine. ] Brethren, let euery man, wherein hee was called, therein abide [Note: [r] So purely & from the heart, that your doings may be approued before God. ] with God.
25 [Note:  He inioyneth virginitie to no man, yet he perswadeth and praiseth it for an other respect, to wit, both for the necessity of the present time, because the faithful could scarce abide in any place, and vse the commodities of this present life, & therefore such as were not troubled with families, might be the redier: and also for the cares of this life, which mariage draweth with it of necessity, so that they can not but haue their minds distracted: and this hath place in women especially. ] Nowe concerning virgines, I haue no commaundement of the Lorde: but I giue mine [Note: [s] The circumstances considered, this I counsell you. ] aduise, as [Note: [t] It is I that speake this which I am minded to speake: and the trueth is, I am a man, but yet worthy credite, for I haue obteined of the Lorde to be such an one. ] one that hath obtained mercie of the Lord to be faithfull.
26 I suppose then [Note: [u] To remaine a virgine. ] this to bee good for the [Note: [x] For the necessitie which the Saintes are daily subiect vnto, who are continually tossed vp and downe, so that their estate may seeme most vnfit for mariage, were it not that the weakenesse of the flesh inforced them to it. ] present necessitie: I meane that it is good for a man so to be.
[Of mariage and virginitie.]
27 Art thou bounde vnto a wife? seeke not to be loosed: art thou loosed from a wife? seeke not a wife.
28 But if thou takest a wife, thou sinnest not: and if a virgine marrie, shee sinneth not: neuerthelesse, such shall haue trouble in the [Note: [y] By the (flesh) he vnderstandeth what things soeuer belong to this present life, for mariage bringeth with it many discommodities: so that hee bendeth more to a sole life, not because it is a seruice more agreeable to God then mariage is, but for those discommodities, which (if it were possible) hee would wish all men to be voide of, that they might giue themselues to God onely. ] flesh: but I [Note: [z] I woulde your weakenesse were prouided for. ] spare you.
29 And this I say, brethren, because the time is [Note: [a] For we are nowe in the latter ende of the world. ] short, hereafter that both they which haue wiues, be as though they had none:
30 And they that [Note: [b] By weeping, the Hebrewes vnderstand all aduersitie, and by ioy, all prosperitie. ] weepe, as though they wept not: and they that reioyce, as though they reioyced not: and they that bye, as though they possessed not:
31 And they that vse this [Note: [c] Those things which God giueth vs here. ] worlde, as though they vsed it not: for the [Note: [d] The guise, the shape, and fashion: whereby he sheweth vs, that there is nothing in this worlde that continueth. ] fashion of this worlde goeth away.
32 And I would haue you without care. The vnmaried careth for the things of the Lord, howe he may please the Lord.
33 But hee that is maried, [Note: [e] They that are married, haue their wittes drawen hither and thither, and therefore if any man haue the gift of continencie, it is more commodious for him to liue alone: but they that are maried may care for the things of the Lords also. Clem.Strom.3. ] careth for the things of the world, how he may please his wife.
34 There is difference also betweene a virgine and a wife: the vnmaried woman careth for the things of the Lord, that she may be holy, both in body and in [Note: [f] Minde. ] spirite: but shee that is maried, careth for the things of the worlde, howe shee may please her husband.
35 And this I speake for your owne [Note: [g] Hee meaneth, that he will inforce no man, either to marrie or not to marrie, but to shew them barely what kinde of life is most commodious. ] commoditie, not to tangle you in a snare, but that yee followe that, which is honest, and that yee may cleaue fast vnto the Lord without separation.
36 [Note:  Nowe hee turneth him selfe to the Parents, in whose power and authoritie their children are, warning them that according to the former doctrine they consider what is meete and conuenient for their children, that they neither depriue them of the necessarie remedie against incontinencie, nor constraine them to mariage, whereas neither their will doeth leade them, nor any necessitie vrgeth them. And againe he praiseth virginitie, but of it selfe, and not in all. ] But if any man thinke that it is vncomely for his virgine, if shee passe the flower of her age, and neede so require, let him do what he will, he [Note: [h] Hee doeth well: for so hee expoundeth it verse 38. ] sinneth not: let them be maried.
37 Neuerthelesse, hee that standeth firme in his [Note: [i] Resolued with himselfe. ] heart, that hee hath no [Note: [k] That the weakenesse of his daughter inforceth him not, or any other matter, but that he may safely keepe her a virgine still. ] neede, but hath power ouer his owne will, and hath so decreed in his heart, that hee will keepe his virgine, hee doeth well.
38 So then hee that giueth her to mariage, doeth wel, but he that giueth her not to mariage, doeth [Note: [l] Prouideth more commodiously for his children, and that not simplie, but by reason of such conditions as are before mencioned. ] better.
39 [Note:  That which hee spake of a widower, hee speaketh nowe of a widowe, to witte, that shee may marie againe, so that shee doe it in the feare of God: and yet he dissembleth not, but sayeth, that if shee remaine still a widowe, shee shall bee voide of many cares. ] The wife is bounde by the [Note: [m] By the Lawe of mariage. ] Lawe, as long as her husband [Note: Rom.7.1. ] liueth: but if her husband bee dead, shee is at libertie to marie with whome she will, onely in the [Note: [n] Religiously, and in the feare of God. ] Lord.
40 But shee is more blessed, if she so abide, in my iudgement: [Note: 1.Theß.4.8. ] and I thinke that I haue also the Spirite of God.
1 From this place vnto the ende of the tenth Chapter, hee willeth them not to be at the Gentiles prophane bankets. 18 He restraineth the abuse of Christian libertie, 11 and sheweth that knowledge must be tempered with charitie.
1 And [Note:  He entreth to intreate of an other kind of things indifferent, to wit, of things offered to idoles, or the vse of flesh so offered and sacrificed. And first of all he remoueth all those things which the Corinthians pretended in vsing things offered to idoles without any respect. First of all they affirmed that this difference of meates was for vnskilfull men, but as for them, they knewe well ynough the benefite of Christ, which causeth all these things to be cleane to them that are cleane. Be it so saith Paul: be it that we are all sufficiently instructed in the knowledge of Christ. I say notwithstanding that we must not simplie rest in this knowledge. The reason is, that vnlesse our knowledge be tempered with charitie, it doeth not onely not auaile, but also doeth much hurt, because it is the mystresse of pride: nay it doeth not so much as deserue the name of godly knowledge, if it be separate from the loue of God, and therefore from the loue of our neighbour. ] as touching things sacrificed vnto idols, wee knowe that wee [Note: [a] This generall worde is to bee abbridged as appeareth, verse 7. for there is a kinde of taunt in it, as wee may perceiue by the next verse. ] all haue knowledge: knowledge [Note: [b] Ministreth occasion of vanitie and pride: because it is voyde of charitie. ] puffeth vp, but loue [Note: [c] Instructeth our neighbour. ] edifieth.
2 Nowe, if any man thinke that hee knoweth any thing, hee knoweth nothing yet as hee ought to knowe.
3 But if any man loue God, the same is knowen of him.
4 [Note:  The application of that answere to thinges offered to idoles: I graunt, sayeth he, that an idole is in deede a vaine imagination, and that there is but one God and Lorde, and therefore that meate can not be made either holy or prophane by the idole: but it followeth not therefore that a man may without respect vse those meates as any other. ] Concerning therefore the eating of things sacrificed vnto [Note: [d] This worde (Idole) in this place is taken for an image which is made to represent some godhead, that worship might bee giuen vnto it: whereupon came the worde (Idolatrie) that is to say, Image seruice. ] idoles, we knowe that an idole is [Note: [e] Is a vaine dreame. ] nothing in the worlde, and that there is none other God but one.
5 For though there bee that are called gods, whether in heauen, or in earth (as there be many gods, and many lords)
6 Yet vnto vs there is but one God, which is that Father, [Note: [f] When the Father is distinguished from the Sonne, hee is named the beginning of all thinges. ] of whome are all things, and we [Note: [g] Wee haue our being in him. ] in him: and [Note: Iohn 13.13. chapter 12.3. ] [Note: [h] But as the father is called Lorde, so is the Sonne, God: therefore this worde (One) doeth not respect the persons, but the natures. ] one Lorde Iesus Christ, [Note: [i] This worde (By) doeth not signifie the instrumentall cause, but the efficient: For the Father and the Sonne worke together, which is not so to bee taken, that wee make two causes, seeing they haue both but one nature, though they bee distinct persons. ] by whome are all things, and we by him.
7 [Note:  The reason why that followeth not, is this: because there are many men which doe not knowe that which you knowe. Nowe the iudgements of outwarde thinges depende not onely vpon your conscience, but vpon the conscience of them that beholde you, and therefore your actions must be applied not onely to your knowledge, but also to the ignorance of your brethren. ] But euery man hath not that knowledge: for [Note:  An applying of the reason: There are many which cannot eate of thinges offered to idoles, but with a wauering conscience, because they thinke them to bee vncleane: therefore if by thy example they enterprise to doe that which inwardly they thinke displeaseth God, their conscience is defiled with this eating, and thou hast bene the occasion of this mischiefe. ] many hauing [Note: [k] By conscience of the idole, hee meaneth the secret iudgement that they had within themselues, whereby they thought all thinges vncleane, that were offered to idoles, and therefore they coulde not vse them with good conscience. For this force hath conscience, that if it bee good, it maketh things indifferent good, and if it be euill, it maketh them euill. ] conscience of the idole, vntill this houre, eate as a thing sacrificed vnto the idole, and so their conscience being weake, is defiled.
8 [Note:  A preuenting of an obiection: Why then, shall we therefore be depriued of our libertie? Nay saith the Apostle, you shall lose no part of Christianitie although you absteine for your brethrens sake, as also if you receiue the meate, it maketh you no whit the more holy, for our commendation before God consisteth not in meates: but to vse our libertie with offence of our brethren, is an abuse of libertie, the true vse whereof is cleane contrary, to wit, so to vse it, as in vsing of it wee haue consideration of our weake brethren. ] But meate maketh not vs acceptable to God, for neither if we eate, haue we the more: neither if we eate not, haue we the lesse.
9 But take heede lest by any meanes this power of yours be an occasion of falling, to them that are weake.
10 [Note:  An other plainer explication of the same reason, propounding the example of the sitting downe at the table in the idoles temple, which thing the Corinthians did euill accompt of among thinges indifferent, because it is simply forbidden for the circumstance of the place, although offence doe ceasse, as it shalbe declared in his place. ] For if any man see thee which hast knowledge, sit at table in the idoles temple, shal not the conscience of him which is weake, be boldened to eate those things which are sacrificed to idoles?
[Not to offend the weake.]
11 [Note:  An amplification of the argument taken both of comparison and contraries: Thou wretched ma, saith he, pleasing thy selfe with thy knowledge which in deede is none (for if thou haddest true knowledge, thou wouldest not sit downe to meate in an idoles temple) wilt thou destroye thy brother hardening his weake conscience by this example to do euil, for whose saluation Christ himselfe hath died? ] And through thy knowledge shall the [Note: Rom.14.15. ] weake brother perish, for whome Christ died.
12 [Note:  An other amplification: Such offending of our weake brethren redoundeth vnto Christ, and therefore let not these men thinke that they haue to doe onely with their brethren. ] Nowe when ye sinne so against the brethren, and wound their weake conscience, ye sinne against Christ.
13 [Note: Rom.14.21. ] [Note:  The conclusion, which Paul conceiueth in his owne person, that hee might not seeme to exact that of other, which hee will not be first subiect vnto himselfe. I had rather (saith hee) absteine for euer from all kinde of flesh, then giue occasion of sinne to any of my brethren, much lesse woulde I refuse in any certaine place or time for my brothers sake not to eate flesh offered to idoles. ] Wherefore if meate offende my brother, I wil eate no flesh while the world standeth, that I may not offend my brother.
1 Hee declareth, that from the libertie which the Lorde gaue him, 15 hee willingly absteined, 18. 22 lest in thinges indifferent he should offend any. 24 Hee sheweth that our life is like vnto a race.
1 Am [Note:  Before he proceedeth any further in his proposed matter of things offered to idoles, he would shewe the cause of al this mischiefe, and also take it away: to wit, that the Corinthians thought themselues not bounde to depart from a iote of their libertie for any mans pleasure. Therefore he propoundeth himselfe for an example and that in a matter almost necessarie. And yet he speaketh seuerally of both, but first of his owne person. If (saith he) you alleadge for your selues that you are free, and therefore will vse your libertie, am I not also free, seeing I am an Apostle? ] I not an Apostle? am I not free? [Note:  He proueth his Apostleship by the effectes, in that that hee was appointed of Christ himselfe, and the authoritie of his function was sufficiently confirmed to him amongest them by their conuersion. And all these thinges hee setteth before their eyes, to make them ashamed for that they would not in the least wise that might be, debase themselues for the weakes sake, whereas the Apostle himselfe did all that hee coulde to winne them to God when they were vtterly reprobate and without God. ] haue I not seene Iesus Christ our Lord? are ye not my worke [Note: [a] By the Lorde. ] in the Lord?
2 If I be not an Apostle vnto other, yet doutlesse I am vnto you: for ye are the [Note: [b] As a seale whereby it appeareth sufficiently that God is the authour of my Apostleship. ] seale of mine Apostleship in the Lord.
3 [Note:  He addeth this by the way, as if he woulde say, So farre it is off, that you may doubt of my Apostleship, that I vse to refute them which cal it into controuersie, by opposing those things which the Lord hath done by me amongst you. ] My defence to them that [Note: [c] Which like Iudges examine me and my doings. ] examine mee, is this,
4 [Note:  Now touching the matter it selfe, he saith. Seeing that I am free, and truely an Apostle, why may not I (I say not, eate of all thinges offered to idoles, but) be maintained by my labours, yea and keepe my wife also, as the residue of the Apostles lawfully doe, as by name, Iohn and Iames, the Lordes cousins, and Peter himselfe? ] Haue we not power to [Note: [d] Vpon the expense of the Church? ] eat & to drinke?
5 Or haue we not power to lead about a wife being a [Note: [e] One that is a Christian and a true beleeuer? ] sister, as well as the rest of the Apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?
6 Or I only and Barnabas, haue not we power [Note: [f] Not to liue by the worke of our handes? ] not to worke?
7 [Note:  That hee may not seeme to burden the Apostles, hee sheweth that it is iust that they doe, by an argument of comparison, seeing that souldiers liue by their wages, and husbandmen by the fruits of their labours, and shepherds by that that cometh of their flocks. ] Who [Note: [g] Vseth to go a warfare? ] goeth a warfare any time at his owne coste? who planteth a vineyarde, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth a flocke, and eateth not of the milke of the flocke?
8 [Note:  Secodly he bringeth forth the authority of Gods institution by an argumet of comparison. ] Say I these thinges [Note: [h] Haue I no better ground then the comon custome of men? ] according to man? saith not the Lawe the same also?
9 For it is written in the Lawe of Moses, [Note: Deu 25.4. 1.tim.5.18. ] Thou shalt not mussell the mouth of the oxe that treadeth out the corne: doeth God take care for [Note: [i] Was it Gods proper drift to prouide for oxen, when he made this Law? for otherwise there is not the smallest thing in the world, but God hath a care of it. ] oxen?
10 Either saith hee it not altogether for our sakes? For our sakes no doubt it is written, that he which eareth, should eare in hope, & that he that thresheth in hope, should be partaker of his hope.
11 [Note: Rom.15.27. ] [Note:  An assumption of the arguments with an amplification, for neither in so doing do we require a rewarde meete for our deserts. ] If wee haue sowen vnto you spirituall thinges, is it a great thing if we reape your carnall thinges?
12 [Note:  An other argument of great force: other are nourished amongst you, therefore it was lawfull for me, yea rather for me then any other: and yet I refused it, and had rather still suffer any discommoditie, then the Gospel of Christ should be hindered. ] If others with you bee partakers of this [Note: [k] The word signifieth a right and interest, whereby he giueth vs to vnderstand that the ministers of the word must of right and duetie be found of the Church. ] power, are not we rather? neuerthelesse, we haue not vsed this power: but suffer all things, that we should not hinder the Gospel of Christ.
13 [Note:  Last of all, hee bringeth forth the expresse Lawe concerning the nourishing of the Leuites: which priuiledge notwithstanding he will not vse. ] Doe ye not knowe, that they which minister about the [Note: Deut.18.1. ] holy things, eate of the [Note: [l] This is spoken by the figure Metonymie, for, of those things that are offred in the temple. ] things of the Temple? and they which waite at the altar, are [Note: [m] Are partakers with the altar in deuiding the sacrifice. ] partakers with the altar?
14 So also hath the Lorde ordeined, that they which preach ye Gospel, should liue [Note: [n] Because they preach the Gospel. It followeth by this place, that Paul gate no liuing neither would haue any other man get, by any commoditie of maßes, or any other such superstitious trumperies. ] of the Gospel.
15 But I haue vsed none of these things: [Note:  He taketh away occasion of suspition by the way, that it might not be thought that hee wrote this as though he chalenged his wages that was not payed him. Nay saith he, I had rather die, then not cotinue in this purpose to preach the Gospel freely. For I am bound to preach the Gospel, seeing that the Lord hath inioyned me this office: but vnlesse I do it willingly, and for the loue of God, nothing is to be allowed that I do. If I had rather that the Gospel should be euill spoken of, then that I should not require my wages, then woulde it appeare that I tooke these paines not so much for the Gospels sake, as for my gaines & aduantages. But I say, this were not to vse, but abuse my right and libertie: Therefore not only in this thing, but also in all other (as much as I could) I am made al things to all men, that I might winne them to Christ, and might together with them be wonne to Christ. ] neither wrote I these things, that it should be so done vnto me: for it were better for me to die, then that any man should make my reioycing vaine.
16 For though I preach the Gospel, I haue nothing to reioyce of: for necessitie is laid vpon me, and woe is vnto me, if I preach not the Gospel.
17 For if I do it willingly, I haue a reward, but if I do it against my will, notwithstanding the dispensation is committed vnto me.
18 What is my reward then? verely that when I preach the Gospel, I make the Gospel of Christ [Note: [o] By taking nothing of them to whom I preach it. ] free, that I abuse not mine authoritie in ye Gospel.
19 For though I bee free from all men, yet haue I made my selfe seruant vnto all men, that I might winne the moe.
20 [Note: Acts. 16.3. galat.2 3. ] And vnto the Iewes, I become as a Iewe, that I may winne the Iewes: to them that are vnder the [Note: [p] The worde (Lawe) in this place, must be restrained to the ceremoniall Lawe. ] Lawe, as though I were vnder the Lawe, that I may winne them that are vnder the Lawe:
21 To them that are without Lawe, as though I were without Lawe, (when I am not without Lawe as pertaining to God, but am in the Lawe through Christ) that I may winne them that are without Lawe:
22 To the weake I become as weake, that I may winne the weake: I am made all thinges to [Note: [q] In matters that are indifferent, which may be done or not done with a good conscience: as if he said, I changed my selfe into all fashions, that by all meanes I might saue some. ] all men, that I might by all meanes saue some.
23 And this I doe for the Gospels sake, that I might be partaker thereof with [Note: [r] That both I and they to whome I preach the Gospel may receiue fruite by the Gospel. ] you.
24 [Note:  He bringeth in an other cause of this mischiefe, to wit, that they were giuen to gluttonie, for there were solemne bakets of sacrifices, and the riot of the Priestes was alwayes too much celebrated and kept. Therefore it was hard for them which were accustomed to riotousnesse, especially when they pretended the libertie of the Gospel, to bee restrained from these bankets: but contrarywise, the Apostle calleth them by a pleasant similitude and also by his owne example, to sobrietie and mortification of the flesh, shewing that they can not be fit to runne or wrestle (as then the games of Isthmies were) which pamper vp their bodies: and therefore affirming that they can haue no reward, vnlesse they take an other course and trade of life. ] Knowe ye not, that they which runne in a race, runne all, yet one receiueth the price? so runne that ye may obtaine.
25 And euery man that proueth masteries, [Note: [s] Vseth a most exquisite dict. ] abstaineth fro all things: and they do it to obtaine a corruptible crowne: but we for an vncorruptible.
26 I therefore so runne, not as vncertainely: so fight I, not as one that beateth the ayre.
27 But I beate downe my [Note: [t] The olde man which striueth against the Spirit. ] body, & bring it into subiection, lest by any meanes after that I haue preached to other, I my selfe should be [Note: [u] This word (Reproued) is not set as contrary to the worde (Elect) but as contrary to the worde (Approoued) when we see one by experience not to be such an one as he ought to be. ] reproued.
1 If God spared not the Iewes, neither will hee spare those who are of like condition, 3. 4 touching the outward signes of his grace. 14 That it is absurd, that such should be partakers of the table of the deuils, who are partakers of the Lords Supper. 24 To haue consideration of our neighbour in things indifferent.
1 Moreouer, [Note:  He setteth out that which hee said, laying before them an example of the horrible iudgement of God against them which had in effect the selfe same pledges, of the same adoption and saluation that we haue: and yet notwithstanding when they gaue them selues to idoles feastes, perished in the wildernes, being horribly and manifoldly punished. Now, moreouer and besides that these things are fitly spoken against them which frequented idoles feastes, the same also seeme to be alleadged to this ende and purpose, because many men are thus minded, that those thinges are not of such great weight, that God will be angrie with them if they vse them, so that they frequent Christian assemblies, and be baptized, and receiue the Communion, and confesse Christ. ] brethren, I woulde not that yee shoulde bee ignorant, that all our [Note: [a] Paul speaketh thus in respect of the couenant, and not in respect of the persons, sauing in generall. ] fathers were vnder [Note: Exod.13.21. nomb.9.18. ] that cloude, and all passed through that [Note: Exod. 14.22. ] sea,
2 [Note:  In effect the Sacraments of the olde fathers were all one with ours, for they respected Christ onely who offered himselfe vnto them in diuers shadowes. ] And were all [Note: [b] All of them were baptized with the outwarde signe, but not in deede, wherewith God cannot bee charged, but they themselues. ] baptized vnto [Note: [c] Moses being their guide. ] Moses, in that cloude, and in that sea,
3 [Note: Exod.16.15. ] And did all eat the [Note: [d] The same that we do. ] same spiritual [Note: [e] Manna, which was a spirituall meate to the beleeuers, which in faith laye holde vpon Christ who is the true meate. ] meat,
4 [Note: Exod.17.6. nom.20.10. and 21.16. ] And did all drinke the same spirituall drinke (for they dranke of the spiritual Rocke that [Note: [f] Of the riuer and running Rocke, which folowed the people. ] folowed them: and the Rocke was [Note: [g] Did sacramentally signifie Christ, so that together with the signe there was the thing signified, and the trueth it selfe: for God doeth not offer a bare signe, but the thing signified by the signe, together with it, which is to be receiued with faith. ] Christ)
5 But with many of them God was not pleased: for they were [Note: Nomb.26.65. ] ouerthrowen in ye wildernes.
6 [Note:  An amplifying of the example against them which are caried away with their lustes beyond the bouds which God hath measured out. For this is the beginning of all euill, as of idolatrie (which hath gluttonie a companion vnto it) fornication, rebelling against Christ, murmuring, and such like, which God punished most sharply in that olde people, to the ende that we which succeed them, and haue a more full declaration of the wil of God, might by that meanes take better heede. ] Nowe these things are our [Note: [h] Some reade figures: which signified our sacraments: for circumcision was to the Iewes a seale of righteousnesse, and to vs a liuely paterne of Baptisme, and so in the other Sacraments. ] ensamples, to the intent that we should not lust after euil things [Note: Nomb.11.4. and 26.64. Psalme 106.14. ] as they also lusted.
7 Neither bee ye idolaters as were some of them, as it is written, [Note: Exod.32.6. ] The people sate downe to eate and drinke, and rose vp to play.
8 Neither let vs commit fornication, as some of them committed fornication, and fell in one [Note: Nomb.25.9. ] day three and twentie thousand.
9 Neither let vs tempt [Note: [i] To tempt Christ, is to prouoke him to a combate as it were, which those men doe, who abuse the knowledge that he hath giuen them, & make it to serue for a cloke for their lustes & wickednes. ] Christ, as some of them also tempted him, and [Note: Nom.21.6. psa 106.14. ] were destroyed of serpents.
10 Neither murmure ye, as some of them [Note: Nom.14.37. iudg.8.24. ] also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.
11 Nowe all these things came vnto them for ensamples, and were written to admonish vs, vpon whome the [Note: [k] This our age is called the end, for it is the shutting vp of all ages. ] endes of the world are come.
12 [Note:  In coclusion, he descedeth to the Corinthias theselues, warning them that they please not themselues, but rather that they prouet the subtilties of Satan. Yet he vseth an insinuation, & comforteth them, that he may not seeme to make them altogether like to those wicked idolaters & cotemners of Christ, which perished in the wildernes. ] Wherefore, let him that thinketh he standeth, take heede lest he fall.
13 There hath no tentation taken you, but such as appertaine to [Note: [l] Which commeth of weakenes. ] man: and God is faithfull,
[One bread one body.]
which will not suffer you to be tempted aboue that you be able, but wil euen [Note: [m] He that would haue you tempted for your profites sake, will giue you an ißue to escape out of the tentation. ] giue the issue with the tentation, that ye may be able to beare it.
14 Wherefore my beloued, flee from idolatrie.
15 [Note:  Nowe returning to those idoles feastes, that hee may not seeme to dally at all, first he promiseth that hee will vse no other reasons, then such as they knew very well them selues. And he vseth an induction borowed of the agreement that is in the things themselues. The holy bankets of the Christians are pledges, first of all, of the communitie that they haue with Christ, and next, one with another. The Israelites also doe ratifie in their sacrifices, their mutuall coniunction in one selfe same religion: therefore so doe the idolaters also ioyne them selues with their idoles or deuils rather (for idoles are nothing) in those solemne bankets, whereupon it followeth, that that table is a table of deuils, and therefore you must eschew it: For you can not be partakers of the Lord and of idoles together, much lesse may such bankets be accompted for things indifferent. Wil ye then striue with God? and if you doe, thinke you that you shall get the vpper hand? ] I speake as vnto them which haue vnderstanding: iugde ye what I say.
16 The cup of [Note: [n] Of thankesgiuing: whereupon, that holy banket was called Eucharist, that is, a thankesgiuing. ] blessing which we blesse, is it not the [Note: [o] A most effectuall pledge and note of our knitting together with Christ, and ingraffing to him. ] communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we breake, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
17 For we that are many, are one bread and one body, because we all are partakers of one bread.
18 Beholde Israel, which is after the [Note: [p] That is, as yet obserue their ceremonies. ] flesh: are not they which eate of the sacrifices [Note: [q] Are consenting and guiltie, both of that worship and sacrifice. ] partakers of the altar?
19 What say I then? that the idole is any thing? or that that which is sacrificed to idoles, is any thing?
20 Nay, but that these things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to deuils, and not vnto God: and I would not that ye should haue [Note: [r] Haue any thing to doe with the deuils, or enter into that societie which is begun on the deuils name. ] fellowship with the deuils.
21 Ye can not drinke the cup of the Lord, and the [Note: [s] The heathen and prophane people were wont to shut vp and make an end of their feasts which they kept to the honour of their gods, in offering meate offerings and drinke offerings to them, with bankets and feasting. ] cup of the deuils. Ye can not be partakers of the Lords table, and of the table of the deuils.
22 Doe we prouoke the Lord to anger? are we stronger then he?
23 [Note: Chap.6.12. ] [Note:  Comming to another kinde of things offered to idoles, he repeateth that generall rule, that in the vse of things indifferent we ought to haue consideration not of our selues onely, but of our neighbours, and therefore there are many things which of them selues are lawfull, which may be euill done of vs, because of offence to our neighbour. ] [Note: [t] Looke afore, Chap.6.13. ] All things are lawfull for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawfull for me, but all things edifie not.
24 Let no man seeke his owne, but euery man anothers wealth.
25 [Note:  An applying of the rule to the present matter: Whatsoeuer is solde in the shambles, you may indifferently buy it as it were at the Lords hand, & eat it either at home with the faithful, or being called home to the vnfaithful to wit, in a priuate banket: but yet with this exception, vnlesse any man be present which is weake, whose conscience may be offended by setting meates offered to idoles before them: for then you ought to haue consideration of their weaknes. ] Whatsoeuer is solde in the [Note: [u] The flesh that was sacrificed, was vsed to bee solde in the shambles, and the price returned to the Priestes. ] shambles, eate ye, and aske no question for conscience sake.
26 [Note: Psalm.24.1. ] For the earth is the Lords, and [Note: [x] All those thinges whereof it is full. ] all that therein is.
27 If any of them which beleeue not, call you to a feast, and if ye wil go, whatsoeuer is set before you, eate, asking no question for conscience sake.
28 But if any man say vnto you, This is sacrificed vnto idoles, eate it not, because of him that shewed it, and for the conscience (for the earth is the Lords, and all that therein is)
29 And the conscience, I say, not thine, but of that other: [Note:  A reason: for we must take heede that our libertie be not euill spoken of, and that the benefite of God which we ought to vse with thankesgiuing be not changed into impietie, & that through our fault, if we chuse rather to offend the conscience of the weake, then to yeelde a litle of our libertie in a matter of no importance, and so giue occasion to the weake to iudge in such sort of vs, and of Christian libertie. And the Apostle taketh these things vpon his owne person, that the Corinthians may haue so much the lesse occasion to oppose any thing against him. ] for why should my libertie be condemned
[Womens head couered.]
of another mans conscience?
30 For if I through Gods [Note: [y] If I may through Gods benefite eate this meate, or that meate, why should I through my fault, cause that benefite of God to turne to my blame? ] benefite be partaker, why am I euill spoken of, for that wherefore I giue thankes?
31 [Note: Coloß.3.17. ] [Note:  The conclusion: We must order our liues in such sort, that we seeke not our selues, but Gods glory, and so the saluation of as many as we may: wherein the Apostle sticketh not to propound him selfe to the Corinthians (euen his owne flocke) as an example, but so that he calleth them backe to Christ, vnto whome hee himselfe hath regard. ] Whether therefore ye eate, or drinke, or whatsoeuer ye doe, doe all to the glory of God.
32 Giue none offence, neither to the Iewes, nor to the Grecians, nor to the Church of God:
33 Euen as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine owne profite, but the profite of many, that they might be saued.
1 He blameth the Corinthians for that in their holy aßemblies, 4 men doe pray hauing their heads couered, 6 and women bare headed, and because their meetings tended to euill, 21 who mingled prophane bankets with the holy Supper of the Lord, 23 which he requireth to be celebrated according to Christes institution.
1 Be [Note: 2.Theß.3.9. ] yee followers of mee, euen as I am of Christ.
2 [Note:  The fifth treatise of this epistle concerning the right ordering of publike assemblies, conteining three pointes, to wit, of the comely apparell of men and women, of the order of the Lords Supper, and of the right vse of spirituall gifts. But going about to reprehend certaine things, he beginneth notwithstanding with a generall praise of them, calling those particular lawes of comelines and honestie, which belong to the ecclesiasticall policie, traditions: which afterward they called Canons. ] Now brethren, I commend you, that ye remember all my things, & keepe the ordinances, as I deliuered them to you.
3 [Note:  Hee setteth downe God, in Christ our mediatour, for the end and marke not onely of doctrine, but also of ecclesiasticall comelines. Then applying it to the question proposed touching the comely apparel both of men and women in publike assemblies, he declareth that the woman is one degree beneath the man by the ordinance of God, and that the man is so subiect to Christ, that the glory of God ought to appeare in him for the preeminence of the sexe. ] But I wil that ye know, that Christ is the [Note: Ephe.5.23. ] head of euery man: and the man is the womans head: and God is [Note: [a] In that, that Christ is our mediatour. ] Christs head.
4 [Note:  Hereof he gathereth, that if men doe either pray or preach in publike assemblies hauing their heads couered (which was then a signe of subiection) they did as it were spoyle themselues of their dignitie, against Gods ordinance. ] Euery [Note: [b] It appeareth that this was a politike Lawe seruing onely for the circumstances of the time that Paul liued in, by this reason, because in these our dayes for a man to speake bareheaded in an aßemblie, is a signe of subiection. ] man praying or prophecying hauing any thing on his head, dishonoureth his head.
5 [Note:  And in like sort he concludeth, that women which shew themselues in publike and ecclesiasticall assemblies without the signe and token of their subiection, that is to say, vncouered, shame them selues. ] But euery woman that prayeth or prophecieth bare headed, dishonoureth her head: [Note:  The first argument taken from the common sense of man, for so much as nature teacheth women, that it is dishonest for them to come abroad bare headed, seeing that shee hath giuen them thicke and long heare, which they doe so diligently trimme and decke, that they can in no wise abide to haue it shauen. ] for it is euen one very thing, as though she were shauen.
6 Therefore if the woman be not couered, let her also be shorne: and if it be shame for a woman to be shorne or shauen, let her be couered.
7 [Note:  The taking away of an obiection: Haue not men also heare giuen them? I graunt, sayth the Apostle, but there is another matter in it: For man was made to this ende and purpose, that the glory of God should appeare in his rule and authoritie: but the woman was made, that by profession of her obedience, she might more honour her husband. ] For a man ought not to couer his head: for as much as he is the [Note: Gene.1.26. and 5.1. & 9.6. coloß.3.10. ] image & glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man.
8 [Note:  He proueth the inequalitie of the woman, by that, that the man is the matter where of woman was first made. ] For the man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man.
9 [Note: Gen.2 22. ] [Note:  Secondly, by that, that the woman was made for man, and not the man for the womans sake. ] For the man was not created for the womans sake: but the woman for the mans sake.
10 [Note:  The conclusion: Women must be couered, to shew by this externall signe, their subiection. ] Therefore ought the woman to haue [Note: [c] A couering which is a token of subiection. ] power on her head, because of the [Note:  What this meaneth, I doe not yet vnderstand. ] Angels.
[Womens heads couered.]
11 [Note:  A digression which the Apostle vseth, least that which he spake of the superioritie of men, and lower degree of women in consideration of the policie of the Church, should be so taken as though there were no measure of this inequalitie. Therefore he teacheth that men haue in such sort the preeminence, that God made them not alone, but women also: and woman was so made of man, that men also are borne by the meanes of women, and this ought to put them in minde to obserue the degree of euery sexe, in such sort, that mutuall coniunction may be cherished. ] Neuertheles, neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man [Note: [d] By the Lord. ] in the Lord.
12 For as the woman is of the man, so is the man also by the woman: but all things are of God.
13 [Note:  He vrgeth the argument taken from the common sense of nature. ] Iudge in your selues, Is it comely that a woman pray vnto God vncouered?
14 Doeth not nature it selfe teach you, that if a man haue long heare, it is a shame vnto him?
15 But if a woman haue long heare, it is a prayse vnto her: for her heare is giuen her for a [Note: [e] To be a couering for her, and such a couering, as should procure another. ] couering.
16 [Note:  Against such as are stubburnly contentious, we haue to oppose this, that the Churches of God are not contentious. ] But if any man lust to be contentious, we haue no such custome, neither the Churches of God.
17 ¶ [Note:  Hee passeth now to the next treatise concerning the right administration of the Lords Supper. And the Apostle vseth this sharper preface, that the Corinthians might vnderstand, that whereas they obserued generally the Apostles commaundements, yet they foully neglected them in a matter of greatest importance. ] Nowe in this that I declare, I prayse you not, that ye come together, not with profite, but with hurt.
18 [Note:  To celebrate the Lords Supper aright, it is requisite that there be not onely consent of doctrine, but also of affections, that it be not prophaned. ] For first of all, when ye come together in the Church, I heare that there are dissentions among you: and I beleeue it to be true in some part.
19 [Note:  Although that schismes and heresies proceede from the deuill, and are euill, yet they come not by chaunce, nor without cause, and they turne to the profite of the elect. ] For there must be heresies euen among you, that they which are [Note: [f] Whome experience hath taught to be of sound religion and godlineße. ] approoued among you, might be knowen.
20 When ye come together therefore into one place, this is [Note: [g] This is an vsuall kinde of speach, whereby the Apostle denyeth that flatly, which many did not well. ] not to eate the Lords Supper.
21 For euery man when they should eate, taketh his owne supper [Note: [h] Eateth his meate and tarieth not till other come. ] afore, and one is hungry, and another is drunken.
22 [Note:  The Apostle thinketh it good to take away the loue feastes, for their abuse, although they had bene a long time, and with commendation vsed in Churches, and were appointed and instituted by the Apostles. ] Haue ye not houses to eate & to drinke in? despise ye the Church of God, and shame them that haue not? what shal I say to you? shall I prayse you in this? I prayse you not.
23 [Note:  Wee must take a true forme of keeping the Lords Supper, out of the institution of it, the partes whereof are these, touching the Pastours, to shewe foorth the Lords death, by preaching his worde: to blesse the bread and the wine by calling vpon the Name of God, and together with prayers to declare the institution thereof, and finally to deliuer the bread broken to be eaten, and the cup receiued to be dronke with thankes giuing. And touching the flocke, that euery man examine himselfe, that is to say, to prooue both his knowledge, and also faith, and repentance: to shewe forth the Lords death, that is, in true fayth to yeelde vnto his worde and institution: and last of all, to take the bread at the Ministers hand, and to eate it and to drinke the wine, and giue God thankes: This was Pauls and the Apostles maner of ministring. ] For I haue receiued of the Lorde that which I also haue deliuered vnto you, to wit, That the Lorde Iesus in the night when he was betrayed, tooke bread:
24 [Note: Matth.26.16. marke 14.22. luke 22.19. ] And when hee had giuen thankes, hee brake it, and sayde, Take, eate: this is my body, which is [Note: [i] This worde (Broken) noteth out vnto vs Christ his maner of death, for although his legs were not broken as the theeues legs were, yet was his body very sore tormented, and torne, and bruysed. ] broken for you: this doe ye in remembrance of me.
25 After the same maner also he tooke the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the Newe Testament in my blood: this doe as oft as ye drinke it, in remembrance of me.
26 For as often as ye shall eate this bread, and drinke this cup, ye shewe the Lords death till hee come.
[The Lords Supper.]
27 [Note:  Whosoeuer contemne the holy Sacraments, that is, vse them not aright, are guiltie not of the bread and wine, but of the thing it selfe, that is, of Christ, and shalbe grieuously punished for it. ] Wherefore, whosoeuer shall eate this bread, and drinke the cup of the Lord [Note: [k] Otherwise then meete is such mysteries should be handled. ] vnworthily, shall be guiltie of the body and blood of the Lord.
28 [Note: 2.Cor.13.5. ] [Note:  The examination of a mans selfe, is of necessitie required in the Supper, and therefore they ought not to be admitted vnto it, which can not examine them selues: as children, furious and mad men, also such as either haue no knowledge of Christ, or not sufficient, although they professe Christian religion: and others such like. ] Let [Note: [l] This place beateth downe the faith of credite, or vnwrapped faith, which the Papists maintaine. ] euery man therefore examine himselfe, and so let him eate of this bread, and drinke of this cup.
29 For he that eateth and drinketh vnworthily, eateth and drinketh his owne damnation, because he [Note: [m] He is sayde to discerne the Lords body, that hath consideration of the worthines of it, and therefore commeth to eate of this meate with great reuerence. ] discerneth not the Lords body.
30 [Note:  The prophaning of the body and blood of the Lord in his mysteries, is sharply punished of him, and therefore such a mischiefe ought diligently to be preuented by iudging and correcting of a mans selfe. ] For this cause many are weake, & sicke among you, and many sleepe.
31 For if we would [Note: [n] Trie and examine our selues, by faith and repentance, separating our selues from the wicked. ] iudge our selues, we should not be iudged.
32 But when we are iudged, we are chastened of the Lord, because we should not be condemned with the world.
33 [Note:  The Supper of the Lorde is a common action of the whole Church, and therefore there is no place for priuate suppers. ] Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eate, tary one for another.
34 [Note:  The Supper of the Lord was instituted not to feede the belly, but to feede the soule with the communion of Christ, and therefore it ought to be separate from common bankets. ] And if any man be hungry, let him eate at home, that ye come not together vnto condemnation. [Note:  Such things as pertaine to order, as place, time, forme of prayers, and other such like, the Apostle tooke order for in Congregations according to the consideration of times, places, and persons. ] Other things will I set in order when I come.
1 To drawe away the Corinthians from contention and pride, he sheweth that spirituall giftes are therefore diuersly bestowed, 7 that, the same being ioyntly to each other imployed, 12 we may growe vp together into one body of Christ in such equall proportion and measure, 20 as the members of mans body doe.
1 Now [Note:  Now he entreth into the third part of this treatise, touching the right vse of spirituall giftes, wherein he giueth the Corinthians plainly to vnderstand, that they abused them: for they that excelled, bragged ambiciously of them, and so robbed God of the prayse of his gifts and hauing no consideration of their brethren, abused them to a vaine ostentation, and so robbed the Church of the vse of those giftes. On the other side, the inferiour sort enuied the better, and went about to make a departure, so that all that body was as it were scattred and rent in pieces. So then he going about to remedie these abuses, willeth them first to consider diligently, that they haue not these giftes of themselues, but from the free grace and liberalitie of God, to whose glory they ought to bestowe them all. ] concerning spirituall giftes, brethren, I would not haue you [Note: [a] Ignorant to what purpose these gifts are giuen you. ] ignorant.
2 [Note:  He proueth the same, by comparing their former state with that wherein they were at this time indued with those excellent gifts. ] Ye know that ye were [Note: [b] As touching Gods seruice and the couenant, meere strangers. ] Gentiles, and were caried away vnto the dumme Idoles, as ye were led.
3 [Note:  The conclusion: Know you therefore, that you can not so much as moue your lips to honour Christ withal, but by the grace of the holy Ghost. ] Wherefore, I declare vnto you, that no man [Note: Mar.9.39. ] speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Iesus [Note: Iohn 13.13. chap.8.6. philip.2.11. ] [Note: [c] Doeth curse him, or by any meanes whatsoeuer diminish his glory. ] execrable: also no man can say that Iesus is the Lord, but by the holy Ghost.
4 [Note:  In the second place, he layeth another foundation, to wit, that these gifts are diuers, as the functions also are diuers, and their offices diuers, but that one selfe same Spirit, Lord and God is the giuer of all these gifts, and that to one ende, to wit, for the profite of all. ] Now there are diuersities of gifts, but the [Note: [d] The Spirit is plainely distinguished from the gifts. ] same Spirit.
5 And there are diuersities of administrations, but the same Lord,
6 And there are diuersities of [Note: [e] So Paul calleth that inward force which commeth from the holy Ghost, and maketh men fit to wonderfull things. ] operations, but
[Spirituall giftes. The members of the body.]
God is the same which worketh all in all.
7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is [Note: [f] The holy Ghost openeth and sheweth himselfe freely in giuing of these giftes. ] giuen to euery man, to [Note: [g] To the vse and benefite of the Church. ] profite withall.
8 [Note:  He declareth this manifolde diuersitie, and reckoneth vp the chiefest giftes, beating that into their heades, which he said before, to wit, that al these things proceeded from one selfe same Spirit. ] For to one is giuen by the Spirit the word of [Note: [h] Wisedome is a most excellent gift, very requisite, not onely for them which teache, but also for them that exhort and comfort, which thing is proper to the Pastours office: as the worde of knowledge agreeth to the Doctours. ] wisdome: and to an other the word of knowledge, by the same Spirit:
9 And to another is giuen faith by the same Spirit: and to another the giftes of healing, by the same Spirit:
10 And to another the [Note: [i] By operation he meaneth those great workings of Gods mightie power, which passe and excell amongst his miracles, as the deliuerie of his people Israel by the hand of Moses: that which he did by Elias against the Priestes of Baal, in sending downe fire from heauen to consume his sacrifice: and that which hee did by Peter, in the matter of Ananias and Saphira. ] operations of great workes: and to another, [Note: [k] Foretelling of thinges to come. ] prophecie: and to another, the [Note: [l] Whereby false prophetes are knowen from true, wherein Peter passed Philippe in discouering Simon Magus, Actes 8.20. ] discerning of spirits: and to another, diuersities of tongues: and to another, the interpretation of tongues.
11 [Note: Rom.12.3. ephes.4.7. ] And all these thinges worketh one and the selfe same Spirit, distributing to euery man seuerally [Note:  He addeth moreouer some thing else, to wit, that although that these giftes are vnequall, yet they are most wisely deuided, because the will of the Spirite of God is the rule of this distribution. ] as he will.
12 [Note:  Hee setteth foorth his former saying by a similitude taken from the body: This saith hee, is manifestly seene in the body, whose members are diuers, but yet so knitte together, that they make but one body. ] For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of the body, which is one, though they be many, yet are but one body: [Note:  The applying of the similitude. So must wee also thinke, sayeth hee, of the mysticall body of Christ: for all wee that beleeue, whether wee be Iewes or Gentiles, are by one selfe same Baptisme, ioyned together with our head, that by that meanes, there may bee framed one body compact of many members: and wee haue drunke one selfe same spirite, that is to say, a spirituall feeling, perceiuerance and motion common to vs all, out of one cuppe. ] euen so is [Note: [m] Christ ioyned together with his Church. ] Christ.
13 For by one Spirit are we all baptized into [Note: [n] To become one bodie with Christ. ] one body, whether we bee Iewes, or Grecians, whether we be bonde, or free, and haue bene all made to [Note: [o] By one quickening drinke of the Lordes blood, wee are made partakers of his onely Spirite. ] drinke into one Spirit.
14 [Note:  Hee amplifieth that which followed of the similitude: as if hee shoulde say, The vnitie of the body is not onely not let by this diuersitie of members, but also it coulde not be a bodie, if it did not consist of many, and those diuers members. ] For the body also is not one member, but many.
15 [Note:  Nowe hee buildeth his doctrine vpon the foundations which hee hath layde: and first of all hee continueth in his purposed similitude, and afterwarde hee goeth to the matter barely and simply. And first of all he speaketh vnto them which would haue separated themselues from those whom they enuied, because they had not such excellent giftes as they: now this is, saith he, as if the foote shoulde say, it were not of the body, because it is not the hande: or the eare, because it is not the eye. Therefore all partes ought rather to defend the vnitie of the body, being coupled together to serue one the other. ] If the foote would say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body, is it therefore not of the body?
16 And if the eare would say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body, is it therefore not of the body?
17 [Note:  Againe speaking to them, he sheweth them that if that shoulde come to passe which they desire, to wit, that all should be equall one to another, there would followe a destruction of the whole body, yea and of themselues: for it coulde not be a body, vnlesse it were made of many members knit together, and diuers one from the other. And that no man might finde fault with this diuision as vnequall, he addeth that God himselfe hath coupled all these together. Therefore all must remaine coupled together, that the body may remaine in safetie. ] If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling?
18 But nowe hath God disposed the members euery one of them in the bodie at his owne pleasure.
19 For if they were all one member, where were the body?
20 But now are there many members, yet but one body.
[The members of the body. Loue.]
21 [Note:  Now on the other side, he speaketh vnto them which were indued with more excellent giftes, willing them not to despise the inferiours as vnprofitable, and as though they serued to no vse: for God, sayeth he, hath in such sort tempered this inequalitie, that the more excellent and beautifull members can in no wise lacke the more abiect and such as wee are ashamed of, and that they shoulde haue more care to see vnto them and to couer them: that by this meanes the necessitie which is on both parts, might keepe the whole body in peace and concorde: that although if ech part be considered apart, they are of diuers degrees and conditions, yet because they are ioyned together, they haue a communitie both in commodities and discommodities. ] And the eye cannot say vnto the hand, I haue no neede of thee: nor the head againe to the feete, I haue no neede of you.
22 Yea, much rather those members of the body, which seeme to be [Note: [p] Of the smallest and vilest offices, and therefore smally accompted of, of the rest. ] more feeble, are necessarie.
23 And vpon those members of the body, which wee thinke most vnhonest, put wee more [Note: [q] Wee more carefully couer them. ] honestie on: and our vncomely parts haue more comelinesse on.
24 For our comely partes neede it not: but God hath tempered the body together, and hath giuen the more honour to that part which lacked,
25 Lest there should be any diuision in the body: but that the members shoulde haue the same [Note: [r] Shoulde bestowe their operations and offices to the profite and preseruation of the whole body. ] care one for another.
26 [Note:  Nowe he applyeth this same doctrine to the Corinthians without any allegorie, warning them that seeing there are diuers functions and diuers giftes, it is their duetie, not to offende one against an other, either by enuie or ambition, but rather that they being ioyned together in loue and charitie one with an other, euery one of them bestowe to the profite of all, that which hee hath receiued according as his ministerie doeth require. ] Therefore if one member suffer, all suffer with it: if one member be had in honour, all the members reioyce with it.
27 Now ye are the body of Christ, and members for your [Note: [s] For all Churches wheresoeuer they are dispersed through the whole worlde, are diuers members of one body. ] part.
28 [Note: Ephesians 4.11. ] And God hath ordained some in the Church: as first Apostles, secondly Prophetes, thirdly teachers, then them that doe miracles: after that, the giftes of healing, [Note: [t] The offices of Deacons. ] helpers, [Note: [u] Hee setteth foorth the order of Elders, which were the mainteiners of the Churches discipline. ] gouernours, diuersitie of tongues.
29 Are all Apostles? are all Prophetes? are all teachers?
30 Are all doers of miracles? haue all the gifts of healing? doe all speake with tongues? doe all interprete?
31 [Note:  He teacheth them that are ambitious and enuious, a certaine holy ambition and enuie, to wit, if they giue themselues to the best giftes, and such as are most profitable to the Church, and so if they contende to excell one another in loue, which farre passeth all other giftes. ] But desire you the best giftes, and I will yet shewe you a more excellent way.
1 He sheweth that there are no gifts so excellent, which in Gods sight are not corrupt, if Charitie be away: 4 and therefore he disgreßeth vnto the commendation of it.
1 Though [Note:  He reasoneth first of Charitie, the excellencie whereof first hee sheweth by this, that without it, all other giftes are as nothing before God: which thing hee prooueth partly by an induction, & partly also by an argument taken of the ende, wherefore those giftes are giuen. For, to what purpose are those giftes, but to Gods glorie, and the profite of the Churche, as is before prooued? so that those giftes without Charitie, haue no right vse. ] I speake with the tongues of men and [Note: [a] A very earnest kinde of amplifying a matter, as if hee saide, If there were any tongues of Angels, and I had them, and did not vse them to the benefite of my neighbour, it were nothing else but a vaine and pratling kinde of babbling. ] Angels, and haue not loue, I am as sounding brasse, or a [Note: [b] That giueth a rude and no certaine sounde. ] tinkling cymbal.
2 And though I had the gift of prophecie, and knewe all secrets and all knowledge, yea, if I had all [Note: [c] By faith, hee meaneth the gift of doing miracles, and not that faith which iustifieth, which can not bee voyde of Charitie as the other may. ] faith, so that I could remooue [Note: Matth. 17. 20. ] mountaines and had not loue, I were nothing.
3 And though I feede the poore with all my goods, and though I giue my body, that I be burned, and haue not loue, it profiteth me nothing.
[Loue. Tongues. Prophecying.]
4 [Note:  He describeth the force and nature of charitie, partly by a comparison of contraries, and partly by the effectes of it selfe: whereby the Corinthians may vnderstad, both how profitable it is in the Church, and how necessarie: and also how farre they are from it, and therefore how vainely and without cause they are proude. ] Loue [Note: [d] Word for word, deferreth wrath. ] suffreth long: it is bountifull: loue enuieth not: loue doeth not boast it selfe: it is not puffed vp:
5 It doeth [Note: [e] It is not contumelious. ] no vncomely thing: it seeketh not her owne things: it is not prouoked to anger: it thinketh not euill:
6 It reioyceth not in iniquitie, but [Note: [f] Reioyceth at righteousnes in the righteous. For the Hebrewes meane by trueth, righteousnes. ] reioyceth in the trueth:
7 It suffreth all things: it beleeueth all things: it hopeth all things: it endureth all things.
8 [Note:  Againe he commendeth the excellencie of charitie, in that, that it shall neuer be abolished in the Saintes, whereas the other giftes which are necessarie for the building vp of the Church, so long as wee liue here, shall haue no place in the worlde to come. ] Loue doeth neuer fall away, though that prophecyings be abolished, or the tongues cease, or [Note: [g] The way to get knowledge by prophecying. ] knowledge vanish away.
9 [Note:  The reason: Because wee are nowe in that state, that wee haue neede to learne dayly, and therefore wee haue neede of those helpes, to wit, of the gifte of tongues, and knowledge, and also of them that teache them. But to what purpose serue they then, when wee haue obtained and gotten the full knowledge of God, which serue nowe but for them which are imperfite, and goe by degrees to perfection? ] For we knowe in [Note: [h] We learne imperfectly. ] part, and we prophecie in part.
10 But when that which is perfect, is come, then that which is in part, shalbe abolished.
11 [Note:  He setteth foorth that, that he saide, by an excellent similitude, comparing this life to our infancie or childehoode, wherein we stagger and stammer rather then speake, and thinke and vnderstande but childish thinges, and therefore haue neede of such things as may forme and frame our tongue and minde: but when we become men, to what purpose should we desire that stammering, those childish toyes, and such like thinges, whereby our childehoode is framed by litle and litle? ] When I was a childe, I spake as a childe, I vnderstoode as a childe, I thought as a childe: but when I became a man, I put away childish thinges.
12 [Note:  The applying of the similitude of our childehood to this present life, wherein we darkely beholde heauenly thinges, according to the small measure of light which is giuen vs, through the vnderstanding of tongues, and hearing the teachers and ministers of the Church: of our mans age and strength, to that heauenly and eternal life, wherein when wee beholde God himselfe present, and are lightened with his full and perfect light, to what purpose shoulde we desire the voyce of man, and those worldly thinges which are most imperfect? But yet then, shall all the Saintes be knit both with God, and betweene themselues with most feruent loue, and therefore charitie shall not be abolished but perfected, although it shall not be shewed foorth and interteined by such maner of dueties as peculiarly and onely belong to the infirmitie of this life. ] For [Note: [i] All this must be vnderstood by comparison. ] nowe we see through a glasse darkely: but then shall wee see face to face. Nowe I know in part: but then shall I know euen as I am knowen.
13 [Note:  The conclusion: As if the Apostle shoulde say, Such therefore shall be our condition then: but nowe we haue three things, and they remaine sure if we be Christes, as without which, true religion cannot consist, to wit, faith, hope, and charitie. And among these, charitie is the chiefest, because it ceaseth not in the life to come as the rest do, but is perfected and accomplished. For seeing that faith and hope tend to thinges which are promised and are to come, when wee haue presently gotten them, to what purpose shoulde wee haue faith and hope? but yet there at length shall we truely and perfectly loue both God, and one an other. ] And nowe abideth faith, hope and loue, euen these three: but the chiefest of these is loue.
1 Hee commendeth the gift of prophecying: 7 and by a similitude taken of musicall instruments, 12 hee teacheth the true vse of interpreting the Scriptures: 17 hee taketh away the abuse: 34 and forbiddeth women to speake in the Congregation.
1 Folowe [Note:  He inferreth nowe of that that he spake before: Therefore seeing charitie is the chiefest of all, before all thinges set it before you as chiefe and principall: and so esteeme those things as most excellent, which profite the greater part of men: (as prophecie, that is to say, the gift of teaching and applying the doctrine: which was contemned in respect of other giftes, although it be the chiefest & most necessary for the Church) and not those which for a shewe seeme to be marueilous, as the gift of tongues, when a man was suddenly indued with the knowledge of many tongues, which made men greatly amazed, and yet of it selfe was not greatly to any vse, vnlesse there were an interpreter. ] after loue, and couet spirituall giftes, and rather that ye may [Note: [a] What prophecie is, he sheweth in the thirde verse. ] prophecie.
2 [Note:  He reprehendeth their peruerse iudgement touching the gift of tongues. For why was it giuen? to wit, to the intent that the mysteries of God might be the better knowen to a greater sort. Thereby it is euident that prophecie, whereunto the gift of tongues ought to serue, is better then this: and therefore the Corinthians did iudge amisse, in that they made more accompt of the gift of tongues, then of prophecying: because forsooth the gift of tongues was a thing more to be bragged of. And hereupon folowed another abuse of the gift of tongues, in that the Corinthians vsed togues in the congregation, without an interpreter. Which thing although it might be done to some profite of him that spake them, yet he corrupted the right vse of that gift, because there came thereby no profite to the hearers, and common assemblies were instituted and appointed not for any priuate mans commoditie, but for the profite of the whole companie. ] For hee that speaketh a strange [Note: [b] A strange language which no man can vnderstande without an interpreter. ] tongue, speaketh not vnto men, but vnto God: for no man heareth him: howbeit in the [Note: [c] By that inspiration which he hath receiued of the Spirit, which notwithstanding he abuseth, when he speaketh mysteries which none of the company can vnderstand ] spirit he speaketh secret things.
3 But he that prophecieth, speaketh vnto me to [Note: [d] Which may further men in the studie of godlines. ] edifying, and to exhortation, and to comfort.
4 He that speaketh strange language, edifieth himselfe: but hee that prophecieth, edifieth the [Note: [e] The companie. ] Church.
5 I would that ye all spake strange languages, but rather that ye prophecied: for greater is hee that prophecieth, then hee that speaketh diuers tongues, except hee expounde it, that the Church may receiue edification.
6 And nowe, brethren, if I come vnto you speaking diuers tongues, what shall I profite you, except I speake to you, either by reuelation, or by knowledge, or by prophecying, or by doctrine?
7 [Note:  He setteth forth that which he said, by a similitude which he boroweth & taketh from instruments of musicke: which although they speake not perfitly, yet they are distinguished by their sounds, that they may be the better vsed. ] Moreouer things without life which giue a sounde, whether it be a pipe or an harpe, except they make a distinction in the soundes, how shall it be knowen what is piped or harped?
8 And also if the trumpet giue an vncertaine sound, who shall prepare himselfe to battell?
9 So likewise you, by the tongue, except yee vtter wordes that haue [Note: [f] That do fitly vtter the matter it selfe. ] signification, howe shall it be vnderstand what is spoken? for ye shal speake in the ayre.
10 [Note:  He proueth that interpretation is necessarily to be ioyned with the gift of tongues, by the manifold varietie of laguages, insomuch that if one speake to another without an interpreter, it is as if he spake not. ] There are so many kindes of voyces (as it commeth to passe) in the world, and none of them is dumme.
11 Except I know then the power of ye voyce, I shall be vnto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that [Note: [g] As the Papists in all their sermons, and they that ambitiously powre out some Hebrew or Greeke words in the Pulpit before the vnlearned people; thereby to get them a name of vaine learning. ] speaketh, shalbe a barbarian vnto me.
12 [Note:  The conclusion: if they wil excel in those spirituall gifts, as it is meete, they must seeke the profit of the Church, & therefore they must not vse the gift of tongues, vnlesse there be an interpreter to expounde the strange and vnknowen tongue, whether it be himselfe that speaketh, or another interpreter. ] Euen so, forasmuch as ye couet spirituall giftes, seeke that ye may excell vnto the edifying of the Church.
13 Wherefore, let him that speaketh a strange tongue, [Note: [h] Pray for the gift of interpretation. ] pray, that he may interprete.
14 [Note:  A reason: Because it is not sufficient for vs to speake so in the congregation, that we our selues do worship God in spirit, that is, according to the gift which we haue receiued, but we must also be vnderstood of the company, lest that be vnprofitable to other, which we haue spoken. ] For [Note: [i] If I pray, when the Church is assembled together, in a strange tongue. ] if I pray in a strange togue, my [Note: [k] The gift and inspiration which the spirit giueth mee, doeth his part, but onely to my selfe. ] spirit prayeth: but mine vnderstading is [Note: [l] No fruite commeth to the Church by my prayers. ] without fruite.
15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, but I wil pray with the [Note: [m] So that I may be vnderstood of other, and may instruct other. ] vnderstanding also: I wil sing with the spirite, but I will sing with the vnderstanding also.
16 [Note:  An other reason: Seeing that the whole congregation must agree to him that speaketh, and also witnes this agreement, how shall they giue their assent or agreement, which knowe not what is spoken? ] Else, when thou blessest with the [Note: [n] Onely, without consideration of the hearers. ] spirit, howe shall hee that [Note: [o] He that sitteth as a priuate man. ] occupieth the roome of the vnlearned, say [Note: [p] So then one vttered the prayers, and all the companie answered Amen. ] Amen, at thy giuing of thankes,
[Strange tongues. Edifying.]
seeing he knoweth not what thou sayest?
17 For thou verely giuest thankes well, but the other is not edified.
18 [Note:  He propoundeth himselfe for an example, both that they may be ashamed of their foolish ambition, and also that he may eschew all suspicion of enuie. ] I thanke my God, I speake languages more then ye all.
19 Yet had I rather in the Church to speake [Note: [q] A very fewe wordes. ] fiue wordes with mine vnderstanding, that I might also instruct others, then ten thousande wordes in a strange tongue.
20 [Note:  Nowe he reproueth them freely for their childish folly, which see not how this gift of tongues which was giuen to the profite of the Church, is turned by their ambition into an instrument of cursing, seeing that this same also is conteined amongst the punishments wherewith God punished the stubburnes of his people, that he dispersed them amongst strangers whose language they vnderstood not. ] Brethren, be not [Note: Matth.28.3. ] children in vnderstanding, but as concerning maliciousnes be children, but in vnderstanding be of a ripe age.
21 In the [Note: [r] By the Lawe, he vnderstandeth all the whole Scripture. ] Lawe it is written, [Note: Isai.18.11. ] By men of other tongues, and by other languages will I speake vnto this people: yet so shal they not heare me, sayth the Lord.
22 [Note:  The conclusion: Therefore the gift of tongues serueth to punish the vnfaithfull and vnbeleeuers, vnlesse it be referred to prophecie (that is to say, to the interpretation of Scripture) and that that which is spoken, be by that meanes vnderstood of the hearers. ] Wherefore strange tongues are for a signe, not to them that beleeue, but to them that beleeue not: but prophecying serueth not for them that beleeue not, but for them which beleeue.
23 [Note:  An other argument: The gift of tongues without prophecie is not onely vnprofitable to the faithfull, but also doeth very much hurt as well to them, as to the vnfaithfull which should be wonne in the publike assemblies. For by this meanes it commeth to passe, that the faithfull seeme to other to be mad, much lesse can the vnfaithfull be instructed thereby. ] If therefore when the whole Church is come together in one, and all speake strange tongues, there come in they that are [Note: [s] Looke Act.4.13. ] vnlearned, or they which beleeue not, will they not say, that ye are out of your wittes?
24 But if all prophecie, and there come in one that beleeueth not, or one vnlearned, hee is rebuked of all men, and is iudged of all,
25 And so are the secrets of his heart made manifest, and so he will fall downe on his face and worship God, and say plainely that God is in you in deede.
26 [Note:  The conclusion: The edifying of the congregation is a rule and square of the right vse of all spirituall giftes. ] What is to be done then, brethren? when ye come together, according as euery one of you hath a Psalme, or hath doctrine, or hath a tongue, or hath reuelation, or hath interpretation, let all things be done vnto edifying.
27 [Note:  The maner how to vse the gift of tongues. It may be lawfull for one or two, or at the most for three, to vse the gift of tongues, one after another in an assemblie, so that there be some to expound the same: but if there be none to expound, let him that hath that gift, speake to him selfe alone. ] If any man speake a strange tongue, let it be by two, or at the most, by three, and that by course, and let one interprete.
28 But if there be no interpreter, let him keepe silence in the Church, which speaketh languages, and let him speake to himselfe, and to God.
29 [Note:  The maner of prophecying: Let two or three propound, and let the other iudge of that that is propounded, whether it be agreeable to the worde of God or no: If in this examination the Lorde giue any man ought to speake, let them giue him leaue to speake. Let euery man be admitted to prophecie, seuerally and in his order, so farre forth as it is requisite for the edifying of the Church: Let them be content to be subiect eche to others iudgement. ] Let the Prophets speake two, or three, and let the other iudge.
30 And if any thing be reueiled to another that sitteth by, let the first holde his peace.
31 For ye may all prophecie one by one, that all may learne, and all may haue comfort.
32 And the [Note: [t] The doctrine which the Prophets bring, which are inspired with Gods Spirit. ] spirits of the Prophets are subiect to the Prophets.
33 For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as we see in all ye Churches of the Saints.
34 [Note:  Women are commanded to be silent in publique assemblies, and they are commanded to aske of their husbands at home. ] [Note: 1.Tim.2.12. ] Let your women keepe silence in the Churches: for it is not permitted vnto them to speake: but they ought to be subiect, as also [Note: Gene.3.16. ] the Lawe sayth.
[Of Christs resurrection.]
35 And if they will learne any thing, let them aske their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speake in the Church.
36 [Note:  A generall conclusion of the treatise of the right vse of spirituall giftes in assemblies: with a sharpe reprehension, least the Corinthians might alone seeme to themselues to be wise. ] Came the worde of God out from you? either came it vnto you onely?
37 If any man thinke him selfe to be a Prophet, or [Note: [u] Skilfull in knowing and iudging spirituall things. ] spirituall, let him acknowledge, that the things, that I write vnto you, are the commandements of the Lord.
38 [Note:  The Church ought not to care for such as be stubburnely ignorant, and will not abide to be taught, but to goe forward notwithstanding, in those things which are right. ] And if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.
39 [Note:  Prophecie ought simplie to be retained and kept in Congregations, the gift of tongues is not to bee forbidden, but all thinges must be done orderly. ] Wherefore, brethren, couet to prophecie, and forbid not to speake languages.
40 Let all things be done honestly, and by order.
1 The Gospel that Paul preached: 3 The death and resurrection of Christ. 8 Paul sawe Christ. 9 He had persecuted that Church, whereof afterward hee was made a minister. 12 Christ first rose againe, and we all shall rise by him. 26 The last enemie, death. 29 To be baptized for dead. 32 At Ephesus Paul sought with beasts. 35 How the dead are raised. 45 The first Adam. The last Adam. 47 The first and second man. 51 We shall all be changed, we shall not all sleepe. 55 Deaths sting. 57 Victorie. 58 Constancie and stedfastnes.
1 Moreouer [Note:  The sixt treatise of this Epistle, concerning the resurrection: and he vseth a transition, or passing ouer from one matter to another, shewing first that hee bringeth no newe thing, to the ende that the Corinthians might vnderstande that they had begun to swarue from the right course: and next that he goeth not about to intreate of a trifling matter, but of another chiefe point of the Gospel, which if it be taken away, their faith must needes come to nought. And so at the length hee beginneth this treatise at Christs resurrection, which is the ground and foundation of ours, and confirmeth it first by the testimonie of the Scriptures and by the witnes of the Apostles, and of more then fiue hundreth brethren, and last of all by his owne. ] [Note: Gala.1.11. ] brethren, I declare vnto you the Gospel, which I preached vnto you, which ye haue also receiued, and wherein ye [Note: [a] In the profession whereof you continue yet. ] continue,
2 And whereby ye are saued, if ye keepe in memorie, after what maner I preached it vnto you, [Note: [b] Which is very absurde, and can not be, but that they that beleeue, must reape the fruite of faith. ] except ye haue beleeued in vaine.
3 For first of all, I deliuered vnto you that which I receiued, how that Christ died for our sinnes, according to the [Note: Isai.53.5. 1.pet. 2.24. ] Scriptures,
4 And that he was buried, and that he arose the third day, according to the [Note: Ionas 2.1. ] Scriptures,
5 [Note: Iohn 20.19. ] And that he was seene of Cephas, then of the [Note: [c] Of those twelue picked and chosen Apostles, which were commonly called twelue, though Iudas was put out of the nomber. ] twelue.
6 After that, he was seene of mo then fiue hudreth brethren at [Note: [d] Not as seuerall times, but together and at one instant. ] once: whereof many remaine vnto this present, and some also are asleepe.
7 After that, he was seene of Iames: then of all the Apostles.
8 [Note: Act.9 5. ] [Note:  Hee mainteineth by the way, the authoritie of his Apostleship, which was requisite to bee in good credite among the Corinthians, that this Epistle might bee of force and waight amongst them. In the meane season hee compareth himselfe in such sort after a certaine diuine arte with certaine other, that he maketh himselfe inferiour to them all. ] And last of all he was seene also of me, as of one borne out of due time.
9 [Note: Ephe.3 8. ] For I am the least of the Apostles, which am not meete to be called an Apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God.
10 [Note: Ephe 3.7. ] But by the grace of God, I am that I am: and his grace which is in me, was not in vaine: but I laboured more aboundantly then they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which is with me.
11 Wherefore, whether it were I, or they, so we preach, and so haue ye beleeued.
12 ¶ [Note:  The first argument to prooue that there is a resurrection from the dead: Christ is risen againe, therefore the dead shall rise againe. ] Now if it be preached, that Christ is risen [Page]
[The resurrection of the body proued.]
from the dead, how say some among you, that there is no resurrection of the dead?
13 [Note:  The seconde by an absurditie. If there be no resurrection of the dead, then is not Christ risen againe. ] For if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen:
14 [Note:  The proofe of that absurditie, by other absurdities: If Christ be not risen againe, the preaching of the Gospel is in vaine, and the credite that you gaue vnto it, is vaine, and we are lyars. ] And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vaine, and your faith is also vaine.
15 And we are found also false witnesses of God: for we haue testified of God, that he hath raised vp Christ: whome he hath not raised vp, if so be the dead be not raised.
16 [Note:  He repeateth the same argument taken of an absurditie, purposing to shew how faith is in vaine, if the resurrection of Christ be taken away. ] For if the dead be not raised, then is Christ not raised.
17 And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vaine: [Note:  First, seeing death is the punishment of sinne, in vaine should we beleeue that our sinnes were forgiuen vs, if they remaine: but they doe remaine, if Christ rose not from death. ] ye are [Note: [e] They are yet in their sinnes, which are not sanctified, nor haue obtained remission of their sinnes. ] yet in your sinnes.
18 [Note:  Secondly, vnlesse that this be certaine that Christ rose againe, all they which dyed in Christ are perished. So then what profite commeth of faith? ] And so they which are a sleepe in Christ, are perished.
19 [Note:  The third argument which is also taken from an absurditie: for vnlesse there be an other life, wherein such as trust and beleeue in Christ shalbe blessed, they were the most miserable of all creatures, because in this life they are the most miserable. ] If in this life onely wee haue hope in Christ, we are of all men the most miserable.
20 [Note:  A conclusion of the former argument: Therefore Christ is risen againe. ] But nowe is Christ risen from the dead, [Note:  He putteth the last conclusion for the first proposition of the argument that followeth. Christ is risen againe: Therefore shall we the faithfull (for of them he speaketh) rise againe. Then followeth the first reason of this consequent: for Christ is set forth vnto vs, to be considered of, not as a priuate man apart and by himselfe, but as the first fruites: And he taketh that which was knowen to all men, to wit, that the whole heape is sanctified in the first fruites. ] and was made the [Note: Col.1.18 reuel.1.5. ] [Note: [f] He alludeth to the first fruites of corne, the offering whereof sanctified the rest of the fruites. ] first fruites of them that slept.
21 [Note:  An other confirmation of the same consequent: for Christ is to be considered as opposite to Adam, that as from one man Adam, sinne came ouer all, so from one man Christ, life commeth vnto all: that is to say, that all the faithfull, as they die, because by nature they were borne of Adam, so because in Christ they are made the children of God by grace, they are quickened and restored to life by him. ] For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.
22 For as in Adam all die, euen so in Christ shall all be [Note: [g] Shall rise by the vertue of Christ. ] made aliue,
23 [Note:  He doeth two things together: for he sheweth that the resurrection is in such sort common to Christ with all his members, that notwithstanding he farre passeth them, both in time (for hee was the first that rose againe from the dead) and also in honour, because that from him and in him is all our life and glory. Then by this occasion he passeth to the next argument. ] But euery man in his [Note: 1.Thess. 4.13. ] owne order: the first fruites is Christ, afterward, they that are of Christ, at his comming shall rise againe.
24 [Note:  The fourth argument, wherewith also he confirmeth the other, hath a most sure ground, to wit because that God must reigne. And this is the maner of his reigne, that the Father wil be shewed to be King in his Sonne who was made man, to whome all thinges are made subiect (the promiser onely except) to the ende that the Father may afterwardes triumph in his Sonne the conquerour. And he maketh two partes of this reigne and dominion of the Sonne, wherein the Fathers glorie consisteth: to wit, the ouercomming of his enemies (whereof some must be depriued of all power, as Satan and all the wicked, be they neuer so proude and mightie, and other must be vtterly abolished, as death) and a plaine and full deliuerie of the godly from all enemies, that by this meanes God may fully set foorth the body of the Church cleauing fast vnto their head Christ, his kingdome and glory, as a King in his subiects. Moreouer, hee putteth the first degree of this kingdome in the resurrection of the Sonne, who is the head: and the perfection, in the full coniunction of the members with the head, which shall be in the latter day. Nowe all these tende to this purpose, to shewe that vnlesse the dead doe rise againe, neither the Father can be King aboue all, neither Christ be Lorde of all: for neither shoulde the power of Satan and death be ouercome, nor the glory of God be full in his Sonne, nor his Sonnes in his members. ] Then shalbe the [Note: [h] The shutting vp and finishing of all thinges. ] end, when he hath deliuered vp the kingdome to God, euen the Father, when he hath put downe [Note: [i] All his enemies which shall be spoyled of all the power they haue. ] all rule, and all authoritie and power.
25 For he must reigne [Note: Psalm.110.1. actes 2.34. hebr.1.13. and 10.13. ] till hee hath put all
[The resurrection of the body proued.]
his enemies [Note: [k] Christ is considered here, as he appeared in the forme of a seruant, in which respect he ruleth the Church as head, and that because this power was giuen him of his Father. ] vnder his feete.
26 The [Note: [l] The shutting vp of the argument, which is taken from the whole to the part: for if all his enemies shalbe put vnder his feete, then must it needes be that death also shalbe subdued vnder him. ] last enemie that shalbe destroyed, is death.
27 [Note: Psalm.8.6. hebr.2.8. ] For he hath put downe all things vnder his feete. (And when he saith that all things are subdued to him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put downe all things vnder him.)
28 And when all things shalbe subdued vnto him, [Note: [m] Not because the Sonne was not subiect to his Father before, but because his body, that is to say, the Church which is here in distreße, and not yet wholy partaker of his glory, is not yet fully perfect, and also because the bodies of the Saints which be in the graues, shall not be glorified vntill the resurrection: but Christ as hee is God, hath vs subiect to him as his Father hath, but as he is Priest, hee is subiect to his Father together with vs. August. booke 1.chap.8. of the Trinitie. ] then shall the Sonne also himselfe be subiect vnto him, that did subdue all things vnder him, that [Note: [n] By this hie kinde of speache, is set foorth an incomprehensible glory which floweth from God, and shal fill all of vs, as we are ioyned together with our head, but yet so, that our head shall alwayes reserue his preeminence. ] God may be all in all.
29 [Note:  The fifth argument taken of the end of Baptisme, to wit, because that they which are baptized, are baptized for dead: that is to say, that they may haue a remedie against death, because that baptisme is a token of regeneration. ] Els what shall they doe which are baptized [Note: [o] They that are baptized, to this ende and purpose, that death may be put out in them, or to rise againe from the dead, whereof baptisme is a seale. ] for dead? if the dead rise not at all, why are they then baptized for dead?
30 [Note:  The sixt argument: Vnlesse there be a resurrection of the dead, why should the Apostles so dayly cast themselues into danger of so many deaths? ] Why are wee also in ieopardie euery houre?
31 By your [Note: [p] As though he sayd, I die dayly, as all the miseries I suffer can well witnes, which I may truely boast of that I haue suffred amongst you. ] reioycing which I haue in Christ Iesus our Lord, I die dayly.
32 [Note:  The taking away of an obiection: But thou Paul didst ambitiously as commonly men are wont to doe, when thou didst fight with beasts at Ephesus: that is very like saith Paul, for what could that aduantage me, were it not for the glory of eternal life which I hope for? ] If I haue fought with beastes at Ephesus [Note: [q] Not vpon any godly motion, nor casting mine eyes vpon God, but caried away with vaine glory, or a certaine headines. ] after ye maner of men, what aduantageth it me, if the dead be not raised vp? [Note: Isai.22 13. ] [Note:  The seuenth argument, which dependeth vpon the last: If there be no resurrection of the dead, why doe we giue our selues to any thing els, saue to eating and drinking? ] let vs [Note: [r] These are speaches that Epicures vse. ] eate and drinke: for to morowe we shall die.
33 [Note:  The conclusion with a sharpe exhortation, that they take heede of the naughtie company of certaine: from whence he sheweth that this mischiefe sprang: warning them to be wise with sobrietie vnto righteousnes. ] Be not deceiued: euill speakings corrupt good maners.
34 Awake to liue righteously, and sinne not: for some haue not ye knowledge of God, I speake this to your shame.
35 [Note:  Nowe that he hath prooued the resurrection, he discouereth their doltishnes, in that they skoffingly demaunded, how it could be that the dead could rise againe, and if they did rise againe, they asked mockingly, what maner of bodies they should haue. Therefore he sendeth these fellowes which seemed to them selues to be marueilous wise and wittie, to be instructed of poore rude husbandmen. ] But some man will say, Howe are the dead raised vp? and with what body come they foorth?
36 [Note:  Thou mightest haue learned either of these, sayth Paul, by dayly experience: for seedes are sowen, and rot, and yet notwithstanding so farre it is off that they perish, that contrariwise they growe vp farre more beautifull: and whereas they are sowen naked and drye, they spring vp greene from death by the vertue of God: and doeth it seeme incredible to thee that our bodies should rise from corruption, and that indued with a farre more excellent qualitie? ] O foole, that which thou sowest, is not quickened, except it die.
37 And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shalbe, but bare corne as it falleth, of wheat, or of some other.
38 [Note:  We see a diuersitie both in one and the selfe same thing which hath nowe one forme and then another, and yet keepeth it owne kinde: as it is euident in a graine which is sowen bare, but springeth vp farre after another sort: and also in diuers kindes of one selfe same sort, as amongst beastes: and also among thinges of diuers sortes, as the heauenly bodies and the earthly bodies: which also differ very much one from another. Therefore there is no cause why wee shoulde reiect either the resurrection of the bodies, or the changing of them into a better state, as a thing impossible, or strange. ] But God giueth it a body at his pleasure,
[The last Adam.]
euen to euery seede his owne body,
39 All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of beastes, and another of fishes, and another of birdes.
40 There are also heauenly bodies, and earthly bodies: but the glorie of the heauenly is one, and the glorie of the earthly is another.
41 There is another glorie of the sunne, and another glorie of the moone, and another glorie of the starres: for one starre differeth from another starre in glorie.
42 [Note:  He maketh three maner of qualities of the bodies being raysed: Incorruption, to wit, because they shalbe sound, and altogether of a nature that can not be corrupt: Glorie, because they shalbe adorned with beautie and honour: Power, because they shall continue euerlasting, without meate, drinke, and all other helpes, without which this fraile life cannot keepe it selfe from corruption. ] So also is the resurrection of the dead. The bodie is [Note: [s] Is buried, and man is hid as seede in the ground. ] sowen in corruption, and is raysed in incorruption.
43 It is sowen in [Note: [t] Voide of honour, voide of glorie and beautie. ] dishonour, and is raysed in glory: it is sowen in weakenesse, and is raysed in [Note: [u] Freed from the former weakenesse, whereas it is subiect to such alteration and change, that it cannot mainteine it selfe without meate and drinke and such other like helpes. ] power.
44 [Note:  He sheweth perfitely in one word, this change of the qualitie of the body by the resurrection, when he sayeth, that of a naturall body, it shall become a spirituall body: which two qualities being cleane different the one from the other, he straightway expoundeth, and setteth foorth diligently. ] It is sowen a naturall body, and is raysed a spirituall body: there is a naturall body, and there is a spirituall body.
45 [Note:  That is called a naturall body, which is quickened and maintained by a liuing soule onely: such as Adam was, of whom all we are borne naturally: and that is said to be spirituall, which together with the soule is quickened with a farre more excellent vertue: to wit, with the Spirit of God, which descendeth from Christ the second Adam, into vs. ] As it is also written, The [Note: [x] Adam is called the first man, because he is the roote as it were from whence we spring, and Christ is the latter man: because he is the beginning of all them that are spirituall, and in him we are all comprehended. ] first man [Note: Gen.2.7. ] Adam was made a liuing soule: and the last Adam was made a [Note: [y] Christ is called a Spirit, by reason of that most excellent nature, that is to say, God who dwelleth in him bodily, as Adam is called a liuing soule, by reason of the soule which is the best part in him. ] quickening Spirit.
46 [Note:  Secondly he willeth the order of this double state or qualitie to be obserued, that the naturall was first, Adam being created of the clay of the earth: and the spirituall followed and came vpon it, to wit, when as the Lord being sent from heauen, indued our flesh which was prepared and made fit for him, with the fulnesse of the Godhead. ] Howbeit that was not first which is spirituall: but that which is naturall, and afterward that which is spirituall.
47 The first man is of the earth, [Note: [z] Wallowing in durt, and wholly giuen to an earthly nature. ] earthly: the second man is the Lord from [Note: [a] The Lord is said to come downe from heauen by that kind of speach, whereby that which is proper to one is vouched of an other. ] heauen.
48 [Note:  He applieth both the earthly naturalnesse of Adam (if I may so say) to our bodies, so long as they are naturally conuersant on earth, to wit, in this life, & in the graue: and also the Spiritualitie of Christ to the same our bodies, after that they are risen againe: and he saith, that that goeth before, and this shall follow. ] As is the earthly, such are they that are earthly: and as is the heauenly, such are they also that are heauenly.
49 And as we haue borne the [Note: [b] Not a vaine and false image, but such an one as had the trueth with it in deede. ] image of the earthly, so shall we beare the image of the heauenly.
50 [Note:  The conclusion. We cannot be partakers of the glory of God, vnlesse we put off all that grosse and filthie nature of our bodies subiect to corruption, that the same body may be adorned with incorruptible glorie. ] This say I, brethren, that [Note: [c] Flesh and blood are taken here for a liuing body, which cannot attaine to incorruption, vnlesse it put off corruption. ] flesh & blood cannot inherite the kingdome of God, neither doeth corruption inherite incorruption.
51 [Note:  He goeth further, declaring that it shall come to passe that they which shall be founde aliue in the latter day, shall not descend into that corruption of the graue, but shalbe renued with a sudden change, which change is very requisite: and that the certaine enioying of the benefite and victorie of Christ, is deferred vnto yt latter time. ] Behold, I shewe you a [Note: [d] A thing that hath bin hid, & neuer knowe hitherto, & therfore worthy that you giue good eare vnto it. ] secret thing, We shall not all sleepe, but we shall all be changed,
52 In [Note: [e] He sheweth vs that the time shalbe very short. ] a moment, in the twinckling of an eye at the last [Note: Mat.24.31. 1.thes.4.16. ] trumpet: for the trumpet shall blow, and the dead shalbe raysed vp incorruptible, and we shalbe changed.
53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption: and this mortall must put on immortalitie.
54 So when this corruptible hath put on incorruption, and this mortall hath put on immortalitie, then shalbe brought to passe the saying that is written, [Note: Ose.13.14. hebre.2.14. ] Death is swallowed vp into victorie.
55 O death where is thy sting? O graue where is thy victorie?
56 The sting of death is sinne: and ye strength of sinne is the Lawe.
57 [Note: 1.Iohn 5.5. ] But thankes be vnto God, which hath giuen vs victorie through our Lord Iesus Christ.
58 [Note:  An exhortation taken of the profite that ensueth, that seeing they vnderstand that the glory of the other life is laid vp for faithfull workemen, they continue and stand fast in the trueth of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead. ] Therefore my beloued brethren, be ye stedfast, vnmoueable, aboundant alwayes in the worke of the Lord, forasmuch as ye knowe that your labour is not in vaine in the [Note: [f] Through the Lordes helpe and goodnesse working in vs. ] Lord.
1 He exhorteth them to helpe the poore brethren of Hierusalem: 10 Then hee commendeth Timothie: 13 and so with a friendly exhortation, 19 and commendations, endeth the Epistle.
1 Concerning [Note:  Collections in olde time were made by the Apostles appointment the first day of the weeke, on which day the maner was then to assemble themselues. ] the gathering for the Saintes, as I haue ordeined in the Churches of Galatia, so doe ye also.
2 Euery [Note: [a] Which in times past was called Sunday, but nowe is called the Lordes day. ] first day of the weeke, let euery one of you put aside by himselfe, and lay vp as God hath [Note: [b] That euery man bestowe, according to the abilitie that God hath blessed him with. ] prospered him, that then there be no gatherings when I come.
3 And when I am come, whomsoeuer ye shal alowe by [Note: [c] Which you shall giue them to cary. ] letters, them will I send to bring your liberalitie vnto Hierusalem.
4 [Note:  The residue of the Epistle is spent in writing of familiar matters, yet so that all things be referred to his purposed marke, that is to say, to the glory of God, and to the edifying of the Corinthians. ] And if it be meete that I goe also, they shall goe with me.
5 Nowe I will come vnto you, after I haue gone through Macedonia (for I will passe through Macedonia.)
6 And it may be that I will abide, yea, or winter with you, that ye may bring me on my way, whither soeuer I goe.
7 For I will not see you nowe in my passage, but I trust to abide a while with you, if the Lord permit.
8 And I wil tary at Ephesus vntill Pentecost.
9 For a great doore and [Note: [d] Very fit and conuenient to doe great things by. ] effectuall is opened vnto me: and there are many aduersaries.
10 ¶ Nowe if Timotheus come, see that he be [Note: [e] Without any iust occasion of feare. ] without feare with you: for he worketh the worke of the Lord, euen as I doe.
11 Let no man therefore despise him: but conuey him foorth [Note: [f] Safe and sound, and that with all kinde of courtesie. ] in peace, that he may come vnto me: for I looke for him with the brethren.
12 As touching our brother Apollos, I greatly desired him, to come vnto you with the brethren: but his mind was not at all to come at this time: howbeit he will come when he shall haue conuenient time.
13 ¶ Watch ye: stand fast in the faith: quite you like men, and be strong.
14 Let all your things be done in loue.
15 Nowe brethren, I beseeche you (ye knowe the house of [Note: [g] Stephanas is the name of a man and not of a woman. ] Stephanas, that it is the first fruites of Achaia, and that they haue [Note: [h] Giuen them selues wholy to the ministerie. ] giuen themselues to minister vnto the Saintes)
16 That ye be [Note: [i] That you honour and reuerence them, be obedient to them, and be content to be ruled by them, as meete is you should, seeing they haue bestowed themselues and their goodes to helpe you withall. ] obedient euen vnto such, and to all that helpe with vs and labour.
17 I am glad of the comming of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus: for they haue supplied the want of you.
18 For they haue comforted my [Note: [k] Mine heart. ] spirite and yours: [Note: [l] Take them for such men as they are in deede. ] acknowledge therefore such men.
19 The Churches of Asia salute you: Aquila [Page]
[The profite of afflictions.]
and Priscilla with ye Church that is in their house, salute you greatly in the Lord.
20 All the brethren greete you. Greete ye one another, with an [Note: Rom.16.16. 2.cor.13.12. 1.peter 5.14. ] holy kisse.
21 The salutation of me Paul with mine owne hand.
22 If any man loue not the Lord Iesus Christ, let him be had in execration [Note: [m] By these words, is be tokened the seuerest kinde of curse and excommunication that was amongst the Iewes: and the wordes are as much to say, as our Lorde commeth: So that his meaning may be this, Let him be accursed euen to the comming of the Lord, that is to say, to his deathes day, euen for euer. ] maran-atha.
[Not Yea, and Nay.]
23 The grace of our Lord Iesus Christ be with you.
24 My loue be with you all in Christ Iesus, Amen.