1 After the salutation, 4 he entreateth of the free election of God, 5 and adoption, 7. 13 from whence mans saluation floweth, as from the true and naturall fountaine: and because so high a mysterie cannot be vnderstood, 16 he prayeth that the full 20 knowledge of Christ may by God be reueiled vnto the Ephesians.
1 Pavl [Note:  The inscription and salutation, whereof wee haue spoken in the former Epistles. ] an Apostle of Iesvs Christ by the will of God, to the [Note: 1.Cor.1.2. ] Saints, which are at Ephesus, and to ye [Note: [a] This is the definition of the Saints, shewing what they are. ] faithfull in Christ Iesus:
2 Grace be with you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Iesus Christ.
3 [Note: 1.Cor.1.3 1.pet.1 3. ] [Note:  The first part of the Epistle, wherein he handleth all the parts of our saluation, propounding the example of the Ephesians, and vsing diuers exhortations, and beginning after his maner with thankesgiuing. ] Blessed be God, [Note:  The efficient cause of our saluation is God, not considered confusedly and generally, but as the father of our Lorde Iesus Christ. ] and the Father of our Lorde Iesus Christ, [Note:  The next finall cause, and in respect of vs, is our saluation, all thinges being bestowed vpon vs which are necessarie to our saluation, which kinde of blessing is heauenly and proper to the elect. ] which hath blessed vs with [Note: [b] With all kinde of gracious and bountifull goodneße which is heauenly in deede and from God onely. ] all spirituall blessing in [Note: [c] Which God our Father gaue vs from his high throne from aboue: or because the Saints haue those giftes bestowed on them, which belong properly to the citizens of heauen. ] heauenly thinges in [Note:  The matter of our saluation is Christ, in whome onely we are in[illeg.]ued with spirituall blessing and vnto saluation. ] Christ,
4 [Note:  He declareth the efficient cause, or by what meanes God the Father saueth vs in his Sone: Because sayth he, he chose vs from euerlasting in his Sonne. ] As hee hath chosen vs in [Note: [d] To be adopted in him. ] him, before the foundation of the worlde, [Note:  He expoundeth the next finall cause, which he maketh double, to wit, sanctification, and iustification, whereof he will speake hereafter. And hereby also two things are to be noted, to wit, that holines of life can not be separate from the grace of election: and againe, what purenes so euer is in vs, is the gift of God who hath freely of his mercie chosen vs ] that we [Note: [e] Then God did not chuse vs, because we were, or otherwise should haue bene holy, but to the end we should be holy. ] should [Note: [f] Being clothed with Christes righteousneße. ] be holy, & without blame [Note: [g] Truely, and sincerely. ] before him in loue:
5 [Note:  Another plainer exposition of the efficient cause, and also of eternall election, whereby God is sayd to haue chosen vs in Christ, to wit, because it pleased him to appoint vs out when we were not yet borne, whom he would make to be his childre by Iesus Christ: so that there is no reason here of our electio to be sought, but in ye free mercy of God, neither is faith which God foresaw, the cause of predestination but the effect. ] Who hath predestinate vs, to be adopted through Iesus Christ [Note: [h] God respected nothing, either that present is, or that is to come, but himselfe only. ] in him selfe, according to the good pleasure of his will,
6 [Note:  The vttermost and chiefest finall cause is the glory of God the Father, who saueth vs freely in his Sonne. ] To the [Note: [i] That as his bountifull goodnes deserueth al prayse, so also it should be set forth and published. ] prayse of the glory of his grace, [Note:  An other finall cause more neere, is our iustification, while that he freely accounteth vs for iust, in his Sonne. ] wherewith he hath made vs freely accepted in his beloued,
7 [Note:  An expounding of the materiall cause, howe we are made acceptable to God in Christ, for it is he onely, whose sacrifice by the mercie of God is imputed vnto vs, for forgiuenes of sinnes. ] By whom we haue redemption through his blood, euen the forgiuenes of sinnes, according
[The spirit of promise.]
to his rich grace:
8 [Note:  Nowe he commeth at length to the formall cause, that is to say, to vocation or preaching of the Gospel, whereby God executeth that eternall counsell of our free reconciliation and saluation in Christ. And putting in place of the Gospel all wisdome and vnderstanding, he sheweth howe excellent it is. ] [Note: [k] By which gracious goodnesse and bountifulnesse. ] Whereby he hath bene aboundant toward vs in [Note: [l] In perfite and sound wisdome. ] all wisedome and vnderstanding,
9 And hath opened vnto vs the [Note: [m] For vnlesse the Lord had opened vnto vs that mysterie, we could neuer haue so much as dreamed of it our selues. ] mysterie of his will [Note:  Not onely the election, but also the vocation proceedeth of meere grace. ] according to his good pleasure, which he had purposed in him,
10 [Note:  The Father exhibited and gaue Christ, who is the head of all the elect, vnto the worlde, at that time which was conuenient, according as he most wisely disposed all times from euerlasting. And Christ is he, in whom all the elect from the beginning of the worlde, (otherwise wandering and separated from God) are gathered together: of which some were then in heauen, when he came into the earth, (to wit, such as by faith in him to come, were gathered together) and other being founde vpon the earth were gathered together of him, and the rest are dayly gathered together. ] That in the dispensation of the fulnesse of the times, he might [Note: [n] The faithfull are saide to be gathered together in Christ, because they are ioyned together with him through faith, and become as it were one man. ] gather together in one all things, both which are in heauen, and which are in earth, euen in Christ:
11 [Note:  He applieth seuerally the benefite of vocation to the beleeuing Iewes, going backe to the very fountaine, that euen they also may not attribute their saluation, neither to them selues, nor to their stocke, nor to any other thing, but to the onely grace and mercie of God, both because they were called, and also because they were first called. ] In whom also we are chosen when we were predestinate according to ye purpose of him, which worketh [Note: [o] All things are attributed to the grace of God without exception, and yet for all that, we are not stockes, for he giueth vs grace both to will and to be able to doe those things that are good, Philippi.2.13. ] all things after the counsell of his owne will,
12 That we, which [Note: [p] He speaketh of the Iewes. ] first trusted in Christ, should be vnto the praise of his glorie:
13 [Note:  Nowe he maketh the Ephesians (or rather all the Gentiles) equall to the Iewes, because that notwithstanding they came last, yet being called by the same Gospel, they embraced it by faith, and were sealed vp with the same Spirit, which is the pledge of election, vntill the inheritance it selfe be seene, that in them also the glory of God might shine foorth, and be manifested. ] In whom also ye haue trusted, after that ye heard the [Note: [q] That worde which is trueth in deede, because it commeth from God. ] worde of trueth, euen the Gospel of your saluation, wherein also after that ye beleeued, ye were [Note: [r] This is a borowed kinde of speache taken of a seale, which being put to any thing, maketh a difference betweene those things that are autenticall, and others that are not. ] sealed with the holy [Note: [s] With that Spirit, which bringeth not the Lawe, but the promise of free adoption. ] Spirite of promes,
14 Which is the earnest of our inheritance, for the [Note: [t] Full and perfect. ] redemption of that libertie purchased vnto the prayse of his glory.
15 [Note:  He returneth to the former gratulation, concluding two things together of those things that went before, the first is, that all good thinges come to vs from God the Father in Christ, and by Christ, that for them he may be praysed of vs. The seconde is, that all those things (which he bringeth to two heades, to wit, faith and charitie) are encreased in vs by certaine degrees, so that we must desire encrease of his grace, from whom we haue the beginning, and of whom we hope for the ende. ] Therefore also after that I heard of the faith, which ye haue in the Lord Iesus, and loue toward all the Saints,
16 I cease not to giue thankes for you, making mention of you in my prayers,
17 [Note:  The causes of faith, are God the Father lightning our mindes with his holy Spirit, that we may embrace Christ opened vnto vs in the Gospel, to the obteyning of euerlasting life, and the setting foorth of Gods glorie. ] That the God of our Lord Iesus Christ, that Father of [Note: [u] Full of maiestie. ] glory, might giue vnto you the Spirit of wisedome, and reuelation through the [Note: [x] For it is not enough for vs to haue knowen God once, but we must knowe him euery day more and more. ] acknowledging of him,
18 That the eyes of your vnderstanding may be lightened, that ye may knowe what the [Note: [y] What blessings they are which he calleth you to hope for, whom he calleth to Christ. ] hope is of his calling, and what the riches of his glorious inheritance is in the Saints,
19 [Note:  The excellencie of faith is declared by the effects, because the mightie power of God is set forth and shewed therein. ] And what is the exceeding greatnesse of his power toward vs, which beleeue, [Note: Chap.3 7. col.2.12. ] according to the working of his mightie power,
[The head of the Church.]
20 [Note:  The Apostle willeth vs to beholde in our most glorious Christ with the eyes of faith, that most excellent power and glorie of God, whereof all the faithfull are partakers, although it be as yet very darke in vs, by reason of the ignominie of the crosse and the weakenesse of the flesh. ] Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his [Note: [z] To be set on Gods right hand, is to be partaker of the soueraintie which he hath ouer all creatures. ] right hand in the heauenly places,
21 Farre aboue al principalitie, and power, and might, and domination, and euery [Note: [a] Euery thing whatsoeuer it be, or aboue all things be they of neuer such power or excellencie. ] Name, that is named, not in this world only, but also in that that is to come,
22 [Note:  That we should not thinke that that excellent glorie of Christ is a thing wherewith we haue nought to doe, he witnesseth, that he was appointed of God the Father head of all the Church, and therefore the body must be ioyned to this head, which otherwise should be a maymed thing without the members: which notwithstanding is not of necessitie (seeing that the Church is rather quickened and susteined by the onely vertue of Christ, so farre off is it, that he needeth the fulnesse thereof) but of the infinite good will and pleasure of God, who vouchsafeth to ioyne vs to his Sonne. ] And hath made all things subiect vnder his feete, and hath giuen him ouer all things to be the [Note: [b] In so much that there is nothing but is subiect to him. ] head to the Church,
23 Which is his body, euen the [Note: [c] For the loue of Christ is so great towards the Church, that though he do fully satisfie all with all things, yet he esteemeth himselfe but a maymed and vnperfect head, vnlesse he haue the Church ioyned to him as his body. ] fulnesse of him that filleth all in all things.
1 The better to set out the grace of Christ, he vseth a comparison, calling them to minde, 5 that they were altogether castawayes and aliantes, 8 that they are saued by grace, 13 and brought neere, 16 by reconciliation through Christ, 17 published by the Gospel.
1 And [Note:  He declareth againe the greatnes of Gods good will, by comparing that miserable state wherein we are borne, with that dignitie whereunto we are aduaunced by God the Father in Christ. So that he describeth that condition in such sort, that he saith, that touching spirituall motions we are not onely borne halfe dead, but wholy and altogether dead. ] [Note: Col 2.13. ] you hath he quickened, that were [Note: [a] Looke Rom.6.2. So then he calleth them dead, which are not regenerate: for as the immortalitie of them which are damned, is no life, so this knitting together of body and soule, is properly no life, but death in them which are not ruled by the Spirit of God. ] dead in [Note:  He sheweth the cause of death, to wit, sinnes. ] trespasses and sinnes,
2 [Note:  He proueth by the effects that all were spiritually dead. ] Wherein, in times past ye walked, [Note:  He proueth this euill to be vniuersall, in so much as all are slaues of Satan. ] according to the course of this world, and [Note: [b] At the pleasure of the prince. ] after the prince that ruleth in the aire, euen the spirite, that nowe [Note:  Men are therefore slaues to Satan, because they are willingly rebellious against God. ] worketh in the [Note: [c] They are called the children of disobedience, which are giuen to disobedience. ] children of disobedience,
3 [Note:  After that he hath seuerally condemned the Gentiles, he confesseth that the Iewes amongst whom he nombreth him selfe, are not a whit better. ] Among whom we also had our conuersation in time past, in the lustes of our [Note: [d] By the name of flesh in the first place, he meaneth the whole man, which he deuideth into two partes: into the flesh, which is the part that the Philosophers terme without reason, and into the thought, which they call reasonable: so that he leaueth nothing in man halfe dead, but cocludeth that the whole man is of nature the sonne of wrath. ] flesh, in fulfilling the will of the flesh, and of the minde, and [Note:  The conclusion: All men are borne subiect to the wrath and curse of God. ] were by nature the [Note: [e] Men are said to be the children of wrath passiuely, that is to say, guiltie of euerlasting death by the iudgement of God, who is angrie with them. ] children of wrath, as well as [Note: [f] Prophane people, which knew not God. ] others.
4 [Note:  Nowe hereof foloweth another member of the comparison, declaring our execellencie, to wit, that by the vertue of Christ we are deliuered from that death, and made partakers of eternall life, to the end that at length we may reigne with him. And by diuers & sundry meanes he beateth this into their heads, that the efficient cause of this benefit is the free mercie of God: and Christ himselfe is the materiall cause: and faith is the instrument, which also is the free gift of God: and the end, is Gods glory. ] But God which is rich in mercie, through his great loue wherewith he loued vs,
5 Euen when we were dead by sinnes, hath quickened vs together in Christ, by whose grace ye are saued,
6 And hath raysed vs vp [Note: [g] To wit, as he addeth afterwards, in Christ, for as yet this is not fulfilled in vs, but onely in our head, by whose spirit we haue begun to die to sinne, and liue to God, vntill that worke be fully brought to an end: but yet the hope is certaine, for we are as sure of that we looke for, as we are of that we haue receiued already. ] together, and made vs sit together in the heauenly places in Christ Iesus,
[Christ our peace.]
7 That he might shewe in the ages to come the exceeding riches of his grace, through his kindnesse toward vs in Christ Iesus.
8 For by [Note: [h] So then, Grace, that is to say, the gift of God, and faith, doe stand one with another, to which two these are contrary, To be saued by our selues, or by our workes. Therefore what meane they which would ioyne together things of so contrary nature? ] grace are ye saued through faith, and that not of your selues: it is the gift of God,
9 [Note:  He taketh away expressely and namely from our workes the praise of iustification, seeing that the good workes them selues are the effectes of grace in vs. ] Not of workes, least any man should boast himselfe.
10 For we are [Note: [i] He speaketh here of Grace, and not of nature: therefore be the workes neuer so good, looke what they are, they are it of grace. ] his workemanship created in Christ Iesus vnto good workes, which God hath ordeined, that we should walke in them.
11 [Note:  Applying the former doctrine to the Gentiles, he sheweth that they were not only as the Iewes, by nature, but also after an especiall sort, strangers and without God: and therefore they ought so much the rather remember that same so great a benefite of God. ] Wherefore remember that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, and [Note: [k] You were called no otherwise then Gentiles, that all the world might witnesse of your vncleannesse. ] called vncircumcision of them, which are [Note: [l] Of the Iewes which were knowe from you by the marke of circumcision, the marke of the couenant. ] called circumcision in the flesh, made with hands,
12 That ye were, I say, at that time [Note: [m] He beginneth first with Christ, who was the ende of all the promises. ] without Christ, and were [Note: [n] You had no right or title, to the common wealth of Israel. ] alients from the common wealth of Israel, and were [Note: Rom.9.4. ] strangers from the couenants of promise, and had no hope, and were without God in the world.
13 [Note:  Christ is the onely bonde of the Iewes and Gentiles, whereby they be reconciled to God. ] But nowe in Christ Iesus, ye which once were farre off, are made neere by the blood of Christ.
14 [Note:  As by the ceremonies and worship appointed by the Lawe, the Iewes were deuided from the Gentiles, so nowe Christ, hauing broken downe the partition wall, ioyneth them both together, both in himselfe, and betwixt themselues, and to God. Whereby it foloweth, that whosoeuer establisheth the ceremonies of the Lawe, maketh the grace of Christ voide and of none effect. ] For he is our peace, which hath made of both one, and hath broken the stoppe of the partition wall,
15 [Note: Col.2.14. ] In abrogating through his flesh the hatred, that is, the Lawe of commandements which standeth in ordinances, for to make of twaine one newe man in himselfe, so making peace,
16 And that he might reconcile both vnto God in [Note: [o] He alludeth to the sacrifices of the Lawe, which represented that true and only Sacrifice. ] one body by his crosse, and [Note: [p] For he destroyed death by death, and fastened it as it were to the crosse. ] slay hatred thereby,
17 [Note:  The preaching of the Gospel, is an effectuall instrument of this grace, common as well to the Iewes as to the Gentiles. ] And came, and preached peace to you which were afarre off, & to them that were neere.
18 For [Note: [q] Christ is the gate as it were, by whom we come to the Father, and the holy Ghost is as it were our lodes man who leadeth vs. ] through him we both haue an entrance vnto the Father by one Spirit.
19 [Note:  The conclusion: The Gentiles are taken into the felowship of saluation. And he describeth the excellencie of the Church, calling it the citie and house of God. ] Nowe therefore ye are no more strangers and forreiners: but citizens with the Saintes, and of the houshold of God,
20 [Note:  The Lord committed the doctrine of saluation, first to the Prophets, and then to the Apostles, the ende whereof, and matter as it were and substance, is Christ. Therefore that is in deede the true and Catholique Church, which is builded vpon Christ by the Prophets and Apostles, as a spirituall temple consecrated to God. ] And are built vpon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Iesus Christ himselfe being the [Note: [r] That is, the head of the building, for the foundations are as it were the heads of the buildings. ] chiefe corner stone,
21 In whom all the building [Note: [s] So that God is the workeman not onely of the foundation, but also of the whole building. ] coupled together, groweth vnto an holy Temple in the Lord.
22 In whom ye also are built together to be the habitation of God by the Spirit.
1 He declareth that therefore he suffered many thinges of the Iewes, 3 because he preached the mysterie touching the saluation of the Gentiles, 8 at Gods commandement. 13 After he desired the Ephesians not to faint for his afflictions: 14 And for this cause he prayeth vnto God, 18 that they may vnderstand the great loue of Christ.
[The Gentiles inheriters.]
1 For [Note:  He maintayneth his Apostleship against the offence of the crosse, whereon also he taketh an argument to confirme himselfe, affirming that he was not onely appointed an Apostle by the mercie of God, but was also particularly appointed to the Gentiles, to call them on euery side to saluation: because God had so determined it from the beginning, although he deferred a great while the manifestation of that his counsell. ] this cause, I Paul am the [Note: [a] These wordes, the prisoner of Iesus Christ, are taken passiuely, that is to say, I Paul am cast into prison for mainteining the glory of Christ. ] prisoner of Iesus Christ for you Gentiles,
2 If ye haue heard of the dispensation of the grace of God, which is giuen me to you warde,
3 That is, that God by reuelation hath shewed this mysterie vnto me (as I wrote aboue in fewe wordes,
4 Whereby when ye reade, ye may knowe mine vnderstanding in the mysterie of Christ)
5 Which in [Note: [b] He meaneth not that none knewe the calling of the Gentiles before, but because very fewe knewe of it, and they that did knowe it, as the Prophets, had it reueiled vnto them very darkely, and vnder figures. ] other ages was not opened vnto the sonnes of men, as it is nowe reueiled vnto his holy Apostles and Prophets by the Spirit,
6 That the Gentiles should be inheriters also, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the Gospel,
7 Whereof I am made a minister by the gift of the grace of God giuen vnto me through the effectuall working of his power.
8 Euen vnto me the least of all Saints is this grace giuen, that I should preach among the Gentiles the vnsearchable riches of Christ,
9 And to make cleare vnto all men what the felowship of the mysterie is, which from the beginning of the world hath bene hid in God, who hath created all things by Iesus Christ,
10 [Note:  The vnlooked for calling of the Gentiles, was as it were a glasse to the heauenly Angels, wherein they might behold the marueilous wisedome of God. ] To the intent, that nowe vnto principalities and powers in heauenly places, might be knowen by the Church the [Note: [c] God neuer had but one way onely, to saue men by: but it had diuers fashions and formes. ] manifolde wisedome of God,
11 According to the [Note: [d] Which was before all beginnings. ] eternall purpose, which he wrought in Christ Iesus our Lord:
12 By whom we haue boldenes and entrance with confidence, by faith in him.
13 Wherefore I desire that ye faint not at my tribulations for your sakes, which is your glory.
14 [Note:  He teacheth by his owne example, that the efficacie of the doctrine dependeth vpon the grace of God, and therefore wee ought to ioyne prayers with the preaching and hearing of the worde: which are needefull not onely to them which are yonglings in religion, but euen to the oldest also, that they growing vp more and more by faith in Christ, being confirmed with all spirituall giftes, may be grounded & rooted in the knowledge of that immeasurable loue, wherewith God the Father hath loued vs in Christ, seeing that ye whole familie, whereof part is alreadie receiued into heauen, and part is yet here on earth, dependeth vpon that adoption of the heauenly Father, in his onely Sonne. ] For this cause I bowe my knees vnto the Father of our Lord Iesus Christ,
15 (Of whom is named the whole [Note: [e] All that whole people, which hath but one houshold Father, and that is the Church, which is adopted in Christ. ] familie in heauen and in earth)
16 That he might graunt you according to the [Note: [f] According to the greatnesse of his mercie. ] riches of his glorie, that ye may be strengthened by his Spirit in the [Note: [g] Looke Rom. 7.22. ] inner man,
17 That Christ may dwell in your heartes by faith:
18 That ye, being rooted and grounded in [Note: [h] Wherewith God loueth vs, which is the roote of our election. ] loue, may be able to comprehend with al Saints, [Note: [i] Howe perfit that worke of Christ is in euery part. ] what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height:
19 And to knowe the [Note: [k] Which God hath shewed vs in Christ. ] loue of Christ, which [Note: [l] Which passeth all the capacitie of mans wit, to compredend it fully in his minde: for otherwise, who so hath the Spirit of God, perceiueth so much (according to the measure that God hath giuen him) as is sufficient to saluation. ] passeth knowledge, that ye may be filled with all [Note: [m] So that we haue aboundantly in vs, whatsoeuer thinges are requisite to make vs perfite with God. ] fulnesse of God.
20 [Note:  He breaketh foorth into a thankesgiuing, whereby the Ephesians also may be confirmed to hope for any thing of God. ] Vnto him therefore that is able to do exceeding aboundantly aboue all that we aske or thinke, according to the power yt worketh in vs,
21 Be prayse in the Church by Christ Iesus, throughout all generations for euer, Amen.
[One bodie, one spirit.]
These three last chapters conteine precepts of maners. 1 Hee exhorteth them to mutuall loue. 7 Sundry gifts are therefore bestowed of God, 16 that the Church may bee built vp. 18 Hee calleth them from the vanitie of the infidels, 25 from lying, 29 and from filthie talke.
1 I therefore, [Note:  An other part of the Epistle, coteining precepts of Christian life, the summe whereof is this, that euery ma behaue himselfe as it is meete for so excellent grace of God. ] being prisoner in the Lorde, praie you that yee walke worthie of the [Note: [a] By this is meant, the generall calling of the faithfull, which is this, to be holy as our God is holy. ] vocation whereunto yee are called,
2 [Note:  Secondly, he comedeth meekenes of minde, which is shewed foorth by bearing one with another. ] With all humblenesse of minde, and meekenesse, with [Note: [b] Looke Mat.18.25. ] long suffering, supporting one an other through loue,
3 [Note:  Thirdly he requireth perfite agreement, but yet such as is knit wt the bande of the holy Ghost. ] Endeuouring to keepe the vnitie of the Spirit in the bond of peace.
4 [Note:  An argument of great waight, for an earnest intertaining of brotherly loue and charitie one with another, because we are made one bodie as it were of one God and Father, by one Spirit, worshipping one Lorde with one faith, & consecrated to him with one Baptisme, and hope for one selfe same glory, whereunto we are called. Therefore whosoeuer breaketh charitie, breaketh all these thinges asunder. ] There is one body, and one Spirit, euen as yee are called in one hope of your vocation.
5 There is one Lord, one Faith, one Baptisme,
6 One God and Father of all, which is [Note: [c] Who only hath the chiefe authoritie ouer the Church. ] aboue all, and [Note: [d] Who onely powreth foorth his prouidence, through all the members of the Church. ] through all, and [Note: [e] Who onely is ioyned together with vs in Christ. ] in you all.
7 [Note:  Hee teacheth vs, that we in deede are all one body, and that all good giftes proceede from Christ onely, who reigneth in heauen hauing mightily conquered al his enemies (from whence he heapeth al gifts vpon his Church:) but yet notwithstanding these giftes are diuersly and sundrie waies deuided according to his wil and pleasure and therefore euery man ought to be content with that measure that God hath giuen him, and to bestowe it to the common profite of the whole body. ] But vnto euery one of vs is giuen grace, according to the measure of the [Note: [f] Which Christ hath giuen. ] gift of Christ.
8 Wherfore he saith, Whe he asceded vp on hie, he led [Note: [g] A multitude of captiues. ] captiuity captiue, & gaue gifts vnto men.
9 (Nowe, in that hee ascended, what is it but that he had also descended first into the [Note: [h] Downe to the earth, which is the lowest part of the world. ] lowest partes of the earth?
10 Hee that descended, is euen the same that ascended, farre aboue all heauens, that hee might [Note: [i] Fill with his gifts. ] fill [Note: [k] The Church. ] all things)
11 [Note:  First of all hee reckeneth vp the Ecclesiastical functions, which are partly extraordinary and for a season, as Apostles, Prophets, Euangelistes, and partly ordinarie and perpetuall, as Pastours and Doctours. ] Hee therefore gaue some to be [Note: [l] The Apostles were those twelue, vnto whome Paul was afterwarde added whose office was to plant Churches throughout all the world. ] Apostles, and some [Note: [m] The Prophets office was one of the chiefest, which were men of a marueilous wisedom, & some of them could foretell things to come. ] Prophets, and some [Note: [n] These the Apostles vsed as fellowes in the execution of their office, being not able to answer all places themselues. ] Euangelists, and some [Note: [o] Pastours are they which gouerne the Church, and Teachers are they which gouerne the schooles. ] Pastours, and Teachers,
12 [Note:  He sheweth the ende of Ecclesiasticall functions, to wit, that by the ministerie of men all the saints may so growe vp together, that they may make one mysticall bodie of Christ. ] For the repairing of the Saintes, for the woorke of the ministerie, and for the edification of the [Note: [p] The Church. ] bodie of Christ,
13 [Note:  The vse of this ministerie is perpetual so long as we are in this world, that is, vntil that time that hauing put of ye flesh, and throughly and perfitly agreeing betwixt our selues, we shall be ioyned with Christ our head. Which thing is done by that knowledge of the Sonne of God increasing in vs, & he himselfe by litle and litle growing vp in vs vntill we come to be a perfite man, which shalbe in the world to come, when God shalbe al in al. ] Till we all meete together (in the [Note: [q] In that most neere coniunction which is knitte and fastened together by faith. ] vnitie of faith and that acknowledging of the Sonne of God) vnto a perfite man, and vnto the measure of the [Note: [r] Christ is said to growe vp to ful age, not in himselfe, but in vs. ] age of the fulnesse of Christ,
14 [Note:  Betwixt our childhood (that is to say, a very weake state, while as we do yet altogether wauer) & our perfite age, which we shal haue at legth in another world, there is a meane, to wit, our youth, and steadie going forwarde to perfection. ] That we henceforth be no more children, [Note:  He compareth them which rest not themselues vpon the word of God, to litle boats which are tossed hither & thither with the doctrines of men as it were wt contrary windes, & therewithal forewarneth them that it commeth to passe not only by the lightnes of mans braine, but also by the craftinesse of certaine, which make as it were an arte of it. ] wauering and caried about with euery winde of doctrine, by the [Note: [s] With those vncertaine chances which tosse men to and fro. ] deceit of men, and
[Put on the newe man.]
[Note: [t] By the deceite of those me which are very well practised, in deceiuing of other. ] wt craftines, whereby they lay in wait to deceiue.
15 [Note:  By earnest affectio of the truth & loue, we growe vp into Christ: for he (being effectual by ye ministerie of his word, which as the vital spirit doth so quicken the whole body, that it nourisheth all ye limmes thereof according to the measure and proportio of eche one) quickeneth and cherisheth his Church, which cosisteth of diuers fuctions, as of diuers mebers, & preserueth ye proportion of euery one. And therof it foloweth yt neither this body ca liue without Christ, neither can any man growe vp spiritually, which separateth himself from the other members. ] But let vs folowe the truth in loue, and in all things, grow vp into him, which is the head, that is, Christ.
16 By whome al the body being coupled and knit together by euery ioynt, for ye furniture therof (according to the [Note: [u] Of Christ, who in maner of the soule, quickeneth all the members. ] effectual power, which is in the measure of euery part) receiueth [Note: [x] Such increase as is meete the bodie shoulde haue. ] increase of the body, vnto the edifying of itselfe in [Note: [y] Charitie is the knitting of the limmes together. ] loue.
17 [Note:  He descedeth to ye fruits of Christia doctrine, & reasoneth first vpon the principles of maners & actions, setting downe a most graue comparison betweene ye children of God, & them which are not regenerate: For in these men, al ye powers of the minde are corrupted, & their minde is giuen to vanity, & their senses are darkned wt most grosse mistines, & their affections are so accustomed by litle & litle to wickednes, that at length they run headlong into all vncleannes, being vtterly destitute of al iudgement. ] This I say therefore and testifie in the Lorde, that yee hencefoorth walke not as [Note: Rom.1.21. ] other Gentiles walke, in [Note: [z] If the noblest parts of the soule be corrupt, what is man but corruption onely? ] vanitie of their minde,
18 Hauing their vnderstanding darkened, and being strangers from the [Note: [a] Whereby God liueth in them. ] life of God through the ignorace that is in them, because of the hardnesse of their heart:
19 Which being [Note: [b] Void of al iudgemet. ] past feeling, haue giuen themselues vnto wantonnesse, to woorke all vncleannesse, euen with [Note: [c] They stroue to paße one another, as though there had bin some gain to be gotte by it. ] griedinesse.
20 [Note:  Here followeth ye contrary part touching me which are regenerat by ye true & liuely knowledge of Christ, which haue other principles of their doings far differet, to wit, holy & honest desires, & a mind cleane chaged by the vertue of the holy Ghost, fro whence proceede also like effects, as a iust & holy life in deede. ] But yee haue not so learned Christ,
21 If so be yee haue heard him, and haue bene taught by him, [Note: [d] As they haue learned, which acknowledge Christ indeede, and in good earnest. ] as the trueth is in Iesus,
22 [Note: Col.3.8. ] That is, that yee cast off, concerning the conuersation in time past, [Note: [e] Your selues. ] that olde man, which is corrupt through the deceiueable lustes,
23 And be renued in the [Note: [f] Where there ought to haue bin ye greatest force of reason, there is the greatest corruption of all which wasteth all thinges. ] spirit of your minde,
24 And put on ye new man, which [Note: [g] After the image of God. ] after God is created vnto [Note: [h] The effect & end of the new creation. ] righteousnes, and [Note: [i] Not fained nor couterfet. ] true holines.
25 [Note:  He comendeth seuerally certain peculiar Christia vertues, and first of all he requireth truth (yt is to say, sincere maners) condemning all deceit & dissembling, because we are borne one for another. ] Wherefore cast off lying, and speake euery man truth vnto his neighbour: for we are members one of another.
26 [Note:  He teacheth vs to bridle our anger in such sort, yt although it be hote, yet yt it breake not out, and that it be straightwaies quenched before we sleepe: lest Satan taking occasio to giue vs euil cousel through yt wicked couseller, destroy vs. ] Bee [Note: [k] If it so fal out yt you be angry, yet sin not: that is, bridle your anger, & do not wickedly put that in executio, which you haue wickedly coceiued. ] angrie, but sinne not: let not the sunne goe downe [Note: [l] Let not the night come vpon you in your anger, that is, make an atonement quickly for al matters. ] vpon your wrath,
27 Neither giue place to the deuill.
28 [Note:  He descendeth fro the heart to the hands, condemning theft: & because yt men which giue theselues to this wickednes, vse to preted pouerty, he sheweth yt labour is a good remedy against pouerty, which God blesseth in such sort, yt they which labour haue alwaies some ouerplus to helpe other, so far is it fro this, yt they are costrained to steale other mens goods. ] Let him that stole, steale no more: but let him rather labour, and worke with his handes the thing which is [Note: [m] By labouring in things yt are holy, & profitable to his neighbour. ] good, that hee may haue to giue vnto him that needeth.
29 [Note:  He bridleth ye tongue also, teaching vs so to temper our talke, yt our hearers minds be not only not destroied, but also instructed. ] Let no [Note: [n] Word for word rotten. ] corrupt comunicatio proceed out of your mouths: but yt which is good, to ye vse of edifying, yt it may minister [Note: [o] By grace, he meaneth that, whereby men may profit to the going on forward in godlines & loue. ] grace vnto the hearers.
30 [Note:  A general precept against all excesse of affections which dwel in yt part. of the mind, which they cal, Angry, & he setteth against them ye contrary meanes And vseth a most vehement preface, how we ought to take heede yt we grieue not the holy Spirit of God through our immoderatenes & intemperacy, who dwelleth in vs to this end, to moderate al our affections. ] And grieue not the holy Spirit of God, [Page]
[Awake from sleepe.]
by whom ye are sealed vnto ye day of redemptio
31 Let all bitternesse, and anger, and wrath, crying, and euill speaking be put away from you, with all maliciousnesse.
32 Be ye courteous one to another, & tender hearted, freely forgiuing one another, [Note:  An argument taken from the example of Christ, most graue and vehement, both for pardoning of those iniuries which haue beene done vnto vs by our greatest enemies, and much more for hauing consideration of the miserable, and vsing moderation and gentle behauiour towardes all men. ] euen as God for Christes sake, freely forgaue you.
2 Lest, in those vices which he reprehended, they shoulde set light by his admonitions, 5 hee terrifieth them by denouncing seuere iudgement, 8 and stirreth them forwarde: 15 Then he descendeth from generall lessons of maners, 21 to the particular dueties of wiues 25 and husbands.
1 Bee yee therefore followers of God, as deare children,
2 [Note: Iohn 13.34. & 15.12. 1.iohn 3.23. ] And walke in loue, euen as Christ hath loued vs, and hath giuen himselfe for vs, to be an offering and a sacrifice of a sweete smelling sauour to God.
3 [Note: Chap.4.29. coloss.3.5. 2.thess.2.17. ] [Note:  Nowe he commeth to another kinde of affectios, which is in that part of the minde, which men cal couetous or desirous: and he reprehendeth fornication, couetousnesse, and iesting, very sharpely. ] But fornication, and all vncleannesse, or couetousnesse, let it not be once named among you, as it becommeth Saintes,
4 Neither filthinesse, neither foolish talking, neither [Note: [a] Iestes which men cast one at an other: that no lightnesse bee seene, nor euill example giuen, nor any offence mooued by euil words or backbiting. ] iesting, which are things not comely, but rather giuing of thankes.
5 [Note:  Because these sinnes are such that the most part of men cout them not for sinnes, hee awaketh the godly to the end they shoulde so much the more take heede to themselues from them, as most hurtfull plagues. ] For this ye know, that no whoremonger, neither vncleane person, nor couetous person, which is an [Note: [b] A bond slaue to Idolatrie, for the couetous man thinketh that his life standeth in his goods. ] idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdome of Christ, and of God.
6 [Note: Matt.24 4. mar.13.5. luke 21.8. 2.thes.2.3. ] Let no man deceiue you wt vaine wordes: for, for such thinges commeth the wrath of God vpon the children of disobedience.
7 [Note:  Because we are not so readie to any thing as to followe euill examples, therefore the Apostle warneth the godly to remember alwaies, that the other are but as it were darkenes, and that they themselues are as it were light. And therefore the other commit all vilanies (as men are wont in the darke) but they ought not onely not to follow their examples, but also (as the propertie of the light is) reproue their darkenes, and to walke so (hauing Christ that true light going before them) as it becommeth wise men. ] Be not therefore companions with them.
8 For ye were once darkenesse, but are nowe [Note: [c] The faithful are called light, both because they haue the true light in them which lighteneth them, & also because they giue light to other, in so much that their honest conuersation reprooueth the life of wicked men. ] light in the Lord: walke as children of light,
9 (For the fruit of the [Note: [d] By whose force we are made light in the Lord. ] Spirit is in al goodnes, and righteousnes, and trueth)
10 Approuing that which is pleasing to the Lorde.
11 And haue no fellowship with ye vnfruitfull works of darknes, but euen [Note: [e] Make them open to all the world, by your good life. ] reproue them rather.
12 For it is shame euen to speake of the things which are done of them in secret.
13 But all thinges when they are reproued of the light, are manifest: for it is light that maketh all things manifest.
14 Wherefore [Note: [f] The Scripture, or God in the Scripture. ] hee sayeth, Awake thou that sleepest, and stande vp from the [Note: [g] Hee speaketh of the death of sinne. ] deade, and Christ shall giue thee light.
15 [Note:  The worse and more corrupt that the maners of this worlde are, the more watchfull ought we to be against all occasions, and respect nothing but the will of God. ] Take heede therefore that yee walke circumspectly, not as fooles, but as [Note: Colos.4.5. ] wise,
16 [Note: [h] This is a metaphore taken from the marchants: who preferre the least profite that may be, before all their pleasures. ] Redeeming ye season: for ye [Note: [i] The times are troublesome and sharpe. ] daies are euill.
17 [Note: Roman.12.2. 1.thessal.4.3. ] Wherefore, be ye not vnwise, but vnderstand what the will of the Lord is.
18 [Note:  He setteth the sober and holy assemblies of the faithfull, against the dissolute bankets of the vnfaithfull, in which the praises of the onely Lord must ring, be it in prosperitie or aduersitie. ] And be not drunke with wine, wherein is
[Husbands and wiues dueties.]
[Note: [k] All kinde of riot, ioyned withall maner of filthineße and shamefulnesse. ] excesse: but be fulfilled with the Spirit,
19 Speaking vnto your selues in psalmes, and hymnes, and spirituall songs, singing, and making melodie to the Lord in your [Note: [l] Wish an earnest affection of the heart, and not with the tongue onely. ] hearts,
20 Giuing thankes alwaies for all thinges vnto God euen the Father, in the Name of our Lorde Iesus Christ,
21 [Note:  A short repetition of the ende whereunto all things ought to be referred, to serue one another for Gods sake. ] Submitting your selues one to another in the feare of God.
22 ¶ [Note: Coloss.3.18. titus 2.5. 1 pet.3.1. ] [Note:  Nowe he descendeth to a familie, diuiding orderly al the partes of a familie. And he sayeth that the duetie of wiues consisteth herein, to be obedient to their husbandes. ] Wiues, submit your selues vnto your husbands, [Note:  The first argument, for they cannot be disobediet to their husbands, but they must resist God also, who is the authour of this subiection. ] as vnto the Lord.
23 [Note: 1.Cor.11.3. ] [Note:  A declaration of the former saying: Because God hath made the man head of the woman in matrimonie, as Christ is the head of the Church. ] For the husband is the wiues head, euen as Christ is the head of the Church, [Note:  An other argument: Because the good estate of the wife dependeth of the man, so that this submission is not onely iust, but also very profitable: as also the saluation of the Church is of Christ, although farre otherwise. ] and the same is the sauiour of his body.
24 [Note:  The conclusion of the wiues duetie towards their husbands. ] Therfore as the Church is in subiection to Christ, euen so let the wiues be to their husbads in euery thing.
25 ¶ [Note: Col.3.19. ] [Note:  The husbands duetie towardes their wiues, is to loue them as themselues, of which loue, the loue of Christ toward his Church is a liuely paterne. ] Husbands, loue your wiues, euen as Christ loued the Church, & gaue himselfe for it,
26 [Note:  Because many men pretend the infirmities of their wiues to excuse their owne hardnesse and crueltie, the Apostle willeth vs to marke what maner of Church Christ gate, when he ioyned it to himselfe, and howe he doeth not onely not lothe all her filth and vncleannesse, but ceaseth not to wipe the same away with his cleannesse, vntill he haue wholy purged it. ] That hee might [Note: [m] Make it holy. ] sanctifie it, and clense it by the washing of water through the [Note: [n] Through the promise of free iustification and sanctification in Christ, receiued by faith. ] worde,
27 That hee might make it vnto him selfe a glorious Church, [Note: [o] The Church as it is considered in it selfe, shall not be without wrincle, before it come to the marke it shooteth at for while it is in this life, it runneth in a race: but if it be considered in Christ, it is cleane and without wrincle. ] not hauing spot or wrinkle, or any such thing: but that it shoulde bee holy and without blame.
28 [Note:  Another argument: Euery man loueth him self, euen of nature: therefore he striueth against nature that loueth not his wife: he prooueth the consequent, first by the mystical knitting of Christ and the Church together, and then by the ordinance of God, who sayeth, that man and wife are as one, that is not to be diuided. ] So ought men to loue their wiues, as their owne bodies: he that loueth his wife, loueth him selfe.
29 For no man euer yet hated his [Note: [p] His owne bodie. ] owne flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth it, euen as the Lord doeth the Church.
30 For we are members of his bodie, [Note: [q] He alludeth to the making of the woman, which signifieth our coupling together with Christ, which is wrought by faith, but is sealed by the Sacrament of the Supper. ] of his flesh, and of his bones.
31 [Note: Gen.2.24. mat.19.5. mar. 10.7. 1.cor.6.16. ] For this cause shal a man leaue father and mother, and shall [Note: [r] Looke Matt.19.5. ] cleaue to his wife, and they twaine shalbe one flesh.
32 [Note:  That no man might dreame of naturall coniunction or knitting of Christ and his Church together (such as the husbandes and the wiues is) he sheweth that it is secrete, to witte, spirituall and such as farre differeth from the common capacitie of man: as which consisteth by the vertue of the Spirit, and not of the flesh, by faith, and by no natural band. ] This is a great secrete, but I speake concerning Christ, and concerning the Church.
33 [Note:  The conclusion both of the husbandes duetie towarde his wife, and of the wiues towarde her husbande. ] Therefore euery one of you, doe ye so: let euery one loue his wife, euen as himselfe, and let the wife see that shee feare her husband.
1 Hee sheweth the dueties of children, 5 seruaunts, 9 and masters: 10 Then he speaketh of the fierce battell that the faithfull haue, 12 and what weapons we must vse in the same: 28 In the ende he commendeth Tychicus.
[Childrens and seruants dueties.]
1 Children, [Note:  He commeth to another part of a familie, and sheweth that the duetie of the children toward their parents, consisteth in obedience vnto them. ] [Note: Coloss.3.20. ] obey your parents [Note:  The first argument: because God hath so appointed: whereupon it foloweth also that children are so farre forth bound to obey their parents, as they may not swarue from the true worship of God. ] in the [Note: [a] For the Lord is authour of all fatherhood, and therefore we must yeelde such obedience as he will haue vs. ] Lord: [Note:  The second argument: because this obedience is most iust. ] for this is right.
2 [Note: Exod.20.12. deut.5.16. eccles 3.9. mat.15.4. mark 7.10. ] [Note:  A proofe of the first argument. ] Honour thy father & mother [Note:  The third argument taken of the profit that ensueth thereby: Because the Lord vouch-safed this commandement amongst all the rest, of a speciall blessing. ] (which is the first commandement with [Note: [b] With a speciall promise: for otherwise the second commandement hath a promise of mercie to a thousand generations, but that promise is generall. ] promes)
3 That it may be well with thee, and that thou mayst liue long on earth.
4 [Note:  It is the duetie of fathers to vse their fatherly authoritie moderately and to Gods glory. ] And ye, fathers, prouoke not your children to wrath: but bring them vp in instruction and [Note: [c] Such informations and precepts as being taken out of Gods booke, are holy and acceptable to him. ] information of the Lord.
5 [Note:  Nowe he descendeth to the third part of a familie, to wit, to the duetie both of the masters, and of the seruants. And he sheweth that the duetie of seruants consisteth in an heartie loue and reuerence to their masters. ] [Note: Colos.3.22. titus 2.9. 1.pet.2.18. ] Seruants, be obedient vnto them that are your masters, [Note:  He mitigateth the sharpenes of seruice, in that they are spiritually free notwithstanding the same, & yet that spirituall freedome taketh not away corporall seruice: in so much that they cannot be Christs, vnlesse they serue their masters willingly and faithfully, so farre foorth as they may with safe conscience. ] according to the flesh, with [Note: [d] With carefull reuerence: for slauish feare is not alowable, much lesse in Christian seruants. ] feare & trembling in singlenesse of your hearts as vnto Christ,
6 Not with seruice to the eye, as men pleasers, but as the seruants of Christ, [Note:  To cut off occasion of all pretences, he teacheth vs that it is Gods will that some are either borne or made seruants, and therefore they must respect Gods will, although their seruice be neuer so hard. ] doing the will of God from the heart,
7 With good will, seruing the [Note: [e] Being moued with a reuerence to Godward, as though ye serued God himselfe. ] Lord, and not men.
8 [Note:  Although they serue vnkind and cruell masters, yet the obedience of seruants is no lesse acceptable to God, then the obedience of them that are free. ] And knowe ye that whatsoeuer good thing any man doeth, that same shall he receiue of the Lord, whether he be bond or free.
9 [Note:  It is the duetie of masters, to vse the authoritie that they haue ouer their seruants, modestly and holily, seeing that they in an other respect haue a common master which is in heauen, who will iudge both the bond and the free. ] And ye masters, doe the same things vnto them, putting away threatning: and know that euen your master also is in heauen, neither is there [Note: Deut.10.17. 2.chro.16.7. iob.34.19. act. 10.34. rom.2.11. gal 2.6. coloss.3.25. 1.pet.1.17. ] [Note: [f] Either of freedome or bondage. ] respect of person with him.
10 ¶ [Note:  He concludeth the other part of this Epistle, with a graue exhortation, that all be ready and fight constantly, trusting to spirituall weapons, vntill their enemies be cleane put to flight. And first of all he warneth vs to take the armour of God, wherewith onely our enemie may be dispatched. ] Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.
11 Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the assaultes of the deuil.
12 [Note:  Secondly, he declareth that our chiefest and mightiest enemies are inuisible, that we may not thinke that our chiefest conflict is with men. ] For we wrestle not against flesh and [Note: [g] Against men, which are of a fraile and brittle nature, against which are set spirituall subtilties, more mightie then the other by a thousand partes. ] blood, but against [Note: Chap.2.2. ] [Note: [h] He giueth these names to the euill angels, by reason of the effectes which they worke: not that they are able to doe the same of themselues, but because God giueth them the bridle. ] principalities, against powers, and against the worldly gouernours, the princes of the darkenesse of this worlde, against spirituall wickednesses, which are in ye hie places.
13 [Note:  He sheweth that these enemies are put to flight with the onely armour of God, to wit, with vprightnesse of conscience, a godly and holy life, knowledge of the Gospel, faith, and to be short, with the word of God, and vsing dayly earnest prayer for the health of the Church, and especially for the constancie of the true, godly and valiant Ministers of the worde. ] For this cause take vnto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to resist in the [Note: [i] Looke Chapter 5.16. ] euill day, and hauing finished all things, stand fast.
14 Stand therefore, and your loynes girded about with veritie, and hauing on the brest plate of righteousnesse,
15 And your feete shod with the [Note: [k] That the preparation of the Gospel may be as it were shoes to you: and it is very fiftly called the Gospel of peace, for that, seeing we haue to goe to God through most dangerous rankes of enemies, this may encourage vs to goe on manfully, in that we knowe by the doctrine of the Gospel; that we take our iourney to God who is at peace with vs. ] preparation of the Gospel of peace.
16 Aboue all, take the shielde of faith, wherewith ye may quench all the fierie dartes of the wicked,
17 And take the helmet of saluation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the worde of God.
18 And pray alwayes wt all maner prayer and supplication in the [Note: [l] That holy prayers may proceede from the holy Spirit. ] Spirit: and watch thereunto with all perseuerance & supplication for al Saints,
19 And for me, that vtterance may be giuen vnto me, that I may open my mouth boldly to publish the secret of the Gospel,
20 Whereof I am the ambassadour in bonds, that therein I may speake boldely, as I ought to speake.
21 ¶ [Note:  A familiar and very amiable declaration of his state, together with a solemne prayer, wherewith Paul is wont to end his Epistles. ] But that ye may also know mine affaires, and what I doe, Tychicus my deare brother and faithfull minister in the Lord, shall shewe you of all things,
22 Whom I haue sent vnto you for the same purpose, that ye might knowe mine affaires, and that he might comfort your hearts.
23 Peace be with the brethren, and loue with faith from God the Father, and from the Lorde Iesus Christ.
24 Grace be with all them which loue our Lord Iesus Christ, to their [Note: [m] To life euerlasting. ] immortalitie, Amen.