4 He entreateth of patience, 6 of faith, 10 and of lowlinesse of minde in rich men. 13 That tentations come not of God for our euill, 17 because hee is the authour of all goodnesse. 21 In what maner the worde of life must be receiued.
1 Iames a seruant of God, and of the Lorde Iesus Christ, to the twelue Tribes, which are [Note: [b] To all the beleeuing Iewes, of what Tribe soeuer they bee, and are dispersed through the whole world. ] scattered abroade, salutation.
2 [Note:  The first place or part touching comfort in afflictions, wherein we ought not to be cast downe and be faint hearted, but rather reioyce and be glad. ] My brethren, [Note: [c] Seing their condition was miserable in that scattering abroade, hee doeth well to begin as he doeth. ] count it exceeding ioy, [Note:  The first argument, because our faith is tried through afflictios: which ought to be most pure, for so is it behoueable for vs. ] when ye fall into diuers tentations,
3 [Note: Rom.5.3. ] [Note:  The second. Because patience, a farre passing and most excellent vertue, is by this meanes ingendred in vs. ] Knowing that ye [Note: [d] That wherewith your faith is tried, to wit, those manifold tentations. ] trying of your faith bringeth forth patience,
4 [Note:  The third argument propounded in maner of an exhortation, that true & continual patience may be discerned from fained and for a time. The crosse is as it were the instrument wherewith God doeth polish and fine vs. Therefore the worke & effect of afflictions, is the perfecting of vs in Christ. ] And let patience haue her perfect worke, that ye may be perfect & entier, lacking nothing.
5 [Note:  An answere to a priuie obiection: It is easely said, but it is not so easely done. He answereth that we neede in this case a farre other maner of wisedome, then the wisedome of man, to iudge those things best for vs, which are most contrarie to the flesh: but yet we shall easely obteine this gift of wisdom, if we aske it rightly, that is, with a sure cofidence of God, who is most bountifull and liberall. ] If any of you lacke [Note: [e] By wisdome he meaneth the knowledge of that doctrine whereof mention was made before, to wit, wherefore we are afflicted of God, and what fruit we haue to reape of affliction. ] wisedome, let him aske of God, which giueth to all men liberally, & reprocheth no man, and it shalbe giuen him.
6 [Note: Mat.7.7. mar.11.24. lu.11.9. iohn 14.13. & 16.23. ] But let him aske in faith, and [Note: [f] Why then, what neede other Mediatours? ] wauer not: [Note:  A digression or going aside from his matter, against praiers which are conceiued with a doubting mind, whereas we haue a certaine promise of God, & this is the second part of the Epistle ] for hee that wauereth, is like a waue of the sea, tost of the winde, and caried away.
7 Neither let that man thinke that hee shall receiue any thing of the Lord.
8 A double minded man is vnstable in [Note: [g] In all his thoughts and his deedes. ] all his waies.
9 [Note:  He returneth to his purpose, repeating the proposition, which is, that we must reioyce in the crosse, for it doeth not presse vs downe, but exalt vs. ] Let the brother of [Note: [h] Who is afflicted with pouertie, or contempt, or with any kinde of calamitie. ] lowe degree reioyce in that he is exalted:
10 [Note:  Before he concludeth, he giueth a doctrine, contrary to the former: to wit, howe we ought to vse prosperitie, which is plentie of all things: to witte, so, that no man therefore please him selfe, but bee so much the more voide of pride. ] Againe hee that is [Note: [i] Who hath all things at his will. ] rich, in that hee is made lowe: [Note:  An argument taken of the very nature of the thinges them selues, for that they are most vaine and vncertaine. ] for as the flower of the grasse, shall he [Note: Esai. 40.6. 1 pet 1.24. ] vanish away.
11 For as when the sunne riseth with heate, then the grasse withereth, and his flower falleth away, and the goodly shape of it perisheth: euen so shall the rich man wither away in all his [Note: [k] Whatsoeuer he either purposeth in his minde or doeth. ] waies.
12 [Note:  The conclusion: Therefore we must patiently beare the crosse: and he addeth a fourth argument, which comprehedeth the summe of all the former, to wit, because we come by this way to the crowne of life, but yet of grace according to the promise. ] [Note: Iob 5.17. ] Blessed is ye man, that endureth [Note: [l] Affliction whereby the Lorde trieth him. ] tentation: for when he is tried, hee shall receiue the crowne of life, which the Lorde hath promised to them that loue him.
13 [Note:  The thirde part of this Epistle, wherein hee descendeth from outward tentations, that is, from afflictions whereby God trieth vs, to inwarde, that is, to those lusts whereby we are stirred vp to doe euill. The summe is this: Euery man is the authour of these temptations to himselfe and not God: for wee beare about in our bosomes that wicked corruption, which taketh occasions by what meanes so euer, to stirre vp euill motions in vs, whenceout at length proceede wicked doings, & in conclusion foloweth death the iust reward of them. ] Let no man say when hee is [Note: [m] When he is prouoked to do euil. ] tempted, I am tempted of God: [Note:  Here is a reason shewed, why God can not be the authour of euill doing in vs, because he desireth not euill. ] for God can not bee tempted with euill, neither tempteth he any man.
14 But euery man is tempted, when hee is drawen away by his owne concupiscence, and is entised.
15 Then when lust hath conceiued, it bringeth foorth [Note: [n] By sinne is meant in this place, actuall sinne. ] sinne, and sinne when it is finished, bringeth foorth death.
16 [Note:  Another reason taken of contraries: God is the authour of all goodnes, and so, that he is alwaies like him selfe: how then can he be thought to be authour of euil? ] Erre not, my deare brethren.
17 Euery good giuing, and euery perfect gift is from aboue, and commeth downe from the [Note: [o] From him who is the fountaine and authour of all goodnes. ] Father of lights, with whome is no variablenes, neither [Note: [p] He goeth on in the metaphore: for the sunne by his manifold and sundrie kindes of turning, maketh houres, daies, moneths, yeeres, light and darkenesse. ] shadow of turning.
18 [Note:  The fourth part, concerning the excellencie & fruit of the word of God. The summe is this: we must heare the woorde of God most carefully and diligently, seeing it is the seede, wherewith God of his free fauour and loue hath begotten vs vnto him selfe picking vs out of the number of his creatures. And the Apostle condemneth two faults, which do greatly trouble vs in this matter, to witte, for that we so please our selues, that we had rather speake our selues, then heare God speaking: yea we snuffe and are angrie when we are reprehended: against which faults, hee setteth a peaceable and quiet minde, and such an one as is desirous of puritie. ] Of his owne [Note: [q] This is it which Paul calleth gracious fauour, and good will, which is the fountaine of our saluation. ] will begate hee vs with the woorde of trueth, that we shoulde be as the [Note: [r] As it were an holy kinde of offering, taken out of the residue of man. ] first fruites of his creatures.
19 Wherefore my deare brethren, let euery [Page]
[Receiue the word.]
man be swift to heare, slowe to speake, and slowe to wrath.
20 For the wrath of man doeth not accomplish the [Note: [s] That which God appointeth. ] righteousnesse of God.
21 Wherefore lay apart all filthinesse, and superfluitie of maliciousnesse, and receiue with [Note: [t] By meekenes, he meaneth modestie, and whatsoeuer is contrarie to an hautie and proude stomacke. ] meekenes the word that is graffed in you, which is able to saue your soules.
22 [Note: Mat.7.21. rom.2.13. ] [Note:  Another admonition: Therefore is Gods woorde heard, that wee may frame our liues according to the prescript thereof. ] And be ye doers of the word, and not hearers onely, [Note:  He addeth reasons, & those most weightie: first, because they that do otherwise, doe verie much hurt themselues. ] deceiuing your owne selues.
23 [Note:  Secondly, because they lose the chiefest vse of Gods woorde, which correct not by it the faults that they knowe. ] For if any heare the woorde, and doe it not, he is like vnto a man, that beholdeth his [Note: [u] Hee alludeth to that naturall spot, to which is contrarie that puritie whereunto we are borne againe, the liuely image whereof we beholde in the Lawe. ] naturall face in a glasse.
24 For when he hath considered himselfe, hee goeth his way, and forgetteth immediately what maner of one he was.
25 But who so looketh in the perfect Lawe of libertie, and continueth therein, hee not being a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the woorke, shalbe blessed in his [Note: [x] Behauing himselfe so: for woorkes doe shewe faith. ] deede.
26 [Note:  The third admonition: The word of God prescribeth a rule not onely to doe well, but also to speake well. ] If any man amog you seeme religious, and refraineth not his tongue, but deceiueth his [Note: [y] The fountaine of all brabling, and cursed speaking, and sawcines, is this, that men know not themselues. ] owne heart, this mans religion is vaine.
27 [Note:  The fourth: The true seruice of God standeth in charitie toward our neighbours (especially such as neede others helpe as the fatherles and widowes) and puritie of life. ] Pure religion & vndefiled before God, euen the Father, is this, to [Note: [z] To haue a care of them, and to helpe them as much as we can. ] visite the fatherlesse, and widdowes in their aduersitie, and to keepe himselfe vnspotted of the world.
1 He sayeth, that to haue respect of persons is not agreeable to Christian faith, 14 which to professe in words is not enough, vnlesse 15 we shew it also in deedes of mercie and charitie, 21 after the example of Abraham.
1 My [Note:  The fifth: Charitie which proceedeth from a true faith, cannot stande with the accepting of persons: which hee prooueth plainly by setting foorth their example, who with the reproche or disdaine of the poore, honour the riche. ] brethren, haue not the faith of our [Note: [a] For if we knew what Christes glory is, and esteemed it as we ought to doe, there woulde not be such respect of persons as there is. ] glorious Lorde Iesus Christ [Note: Leuit.19.15. deut.1.17. and 15.19. prou.24.23. ] in respect of persons.
2 For if there come into your copany a man with a golde ring, and in goodly apparell, and there come in also a poore man in vile raiment,
3 And ye haue a respect to him that weareth the gaie clothing; and say vnto him, Sit thou here in a [Note: [b] In a worshipfull and honourable place. ] goodly place, and say vnto the poore, Stand thou there, or sit here vnder my footestoole,
4 Are yee not partiall in [Note: [c] Haue yee not (which you ought not to doe) by this meanes within your selues iudged one man to be preferred before an other? ] your selues, and are become iudges of euill thoughts?
5 [Note:  Hee sheweth, that they are peruerse and naughtie iudges, which preferre the rich before the poore, by that that God on the contrary side preferreth the poore, whome he hath enriched with true riches, before the rich. ] Hearken my beloued brethren, hath not God chosen the [Note: [d] The needie and wretched, and (if we measure it after the opinion of the world) the veriest abiects of all men. ] poore of this worlde, that they should be rich in faith, and heires of the kingdome which he promised to them that loue him?
6 But ye haue despised the poore. [Note:  Secondly, he proueth them to be mad men, for that ye rich men are rather to be holden execrable and cursed, considering that they persecute the Church, and blaspheme Christ: for he speaketh of wicked and prophane rich men, such as the most part of them haue beene alwaies, against whome hee setteth the poore and abiect. ] Doe not the riche oppresse you by tyrannie, and doe not they drawe you before the iudgement seates?
7 Doe nor they blaspheme the worthie Name after which yee be [Note: [e] Woorde for woorde, which is called vpon, of you. ] named?
[Of faith and workes.]
8 [Note:  The Conclusion: Charitie which God prescribeth cannot agree with the accepting of persons, seeing that wee must walke in the kings hie way. ] But if yee fulfill the [Note: [f] The Law is said to be royall and like the kings hie way, for that it is plaine and without turnings, and that the Lawe calleth euery one our neighbour without respect, whome we may helpe by any kinde of duetie. ] royall Lawe according to the Scripture, which saith, Thou shalt loue thy neighbour as thy selfe, yee doe well.
9 But if yee regarde the persons, yee commit sinne, and are rebuked of the Lawe, as transgressours.
10 [Note:  A newe argument to prooue the same conclusion: They doe not loue their neighbours, which neglect some, and ambitiously honour other: for he doeth not obey God, which cutteth off from the commaundements of God that, that is not so commodious for him, nay he is rather guiltie generally for the breache of the whole Lawe, although he obserue the residue. ] For whosoeuer shall keepe the whole Lawe, and yet faileth in one poynt, hee is guiltie of [Note: [g] Not that all sinnes are equall, but because he that breaketh one title of the Lawe, offendeth the maiestie of the Law giuer. ] all.
11 [Note:  A proofe: because the Lawe maker is alwaies one and the selfe same, and the body of the Law cannot be deuided. ] For he that saide, Thou shalt not commit adulterie, saide also, Thou shalt not kill. Nowe though thou doest none adulterie, yet if thou killest, thou art a transgressour of the Lawe.
12 [Note:  The conclusion of the whole treatise: We are vpon this condition deliuered from the curse of the Law by the mercy of God, that in like sort we should maintaine & cherish charity and good will one towardes another, and who so doeth not so, shall not taste of the grace of God. ] So speake ye, and so doe, as they that shal be iudged by the Lawe of libertie.
13 For there shalbe condemnation merciles to him that sheweth not [Note: [h] He that is hard and currish against his neighbour, or els helpeth him not, he shall finde God an hard and rough Iudge to himselfewarde. ] mercie, and mercie reioyceth against condemnation.
14 [Note:  The fifth place which hangeth very wel with the former treatise, touching a true & liuely faith. And the proposition of this place is this: faith which bringeth not foorth works; is not that faith wherby we are iustified, but an image of faith: or els this, they are not iustified by faith, which shew not ye effects of faith. ] What auaileth it, my brethren, though a man saith he hath faith, when he hath no workes? can that faith saue him?
15 [Note:  The first reason taken of a similitude: If a man say to one yt is hungrie, Fil thy bellie, and yet giueth him nothing, this shal not be true charitie: so if a man say he beleeueth, & bringeth forth no woorkes of his faith, this shal not be a true faith, but a certaine dead thing set out with the name of faith, whereof no man hath to brag, vnlesse he will openly incurre reprehension, seeing that the cause is vnderstoode by the effects. ] For if a brother or a sister bee naked and destitute of daily foode,
16 And one of you say vnto them, Depart in peace: warme your selues, and fil your bellies, notwithstading ye giue them not those things which are needefull to the body, what helpeth it?
17 Euen so the faith, if it haue no woorkes, is dead in it selfe.
18 But [Note: [i] Nay, thus may euery man beate downe thy pride. ] some man might say, Thou hast the faith, and I haue woorkes: shewe me thy faith out of thy woorkes, and I will shewe thee my faith by my woorkes.
19 [Note:  Another reason taken of an absurdity: If such a faith were the true faith wherby we are iustified, the deuils shoulde be iustified, for they haue that, but yet notwithstanding they tremble, and are not iustified therefore, neither is that faith a true faith. ] Thou beleeuest that there is one God: thou doest well: the deuils also beleeue it, and tremble.
20 [Note:  The third reason from the example of Abraham, who no doubt had a true faith: but he in offring his sonne, shewed him selfe to haue that saith which was not voide of woorkes, and therefore he receiued a true testimonie when it was sayde, that faith was imputed to him for righteousnes. ] But wilt thou vnderstand, O thou vaine man, yt the faith which is without workes, is dead?
21 Was not Abraham our father [Note: [k] Was he not by his workes knowen and found to be iustified? for he speaketh not here of the causes of iustification, but by what effects we may know that a man is iustified. ] iustified through workes, [Note: Gen.22.10. ] when he offred Isaac his sonne vpon the altar?
22 Seest thou not that the faith [Note: [l] Was effectual and fruitful with good workes. ] wrought with his workes? and through the workes was the faith made [Note: [m] That the faith was declared to be a true faith, and that by workes. ] perfect.
23 And the Scripture was [Note: [n] Then was the Scripture fulfilled, when it appeared plainely, howe truely it was written of Abraham. ] fulfilled which sayeth, [Note: Gen. 15.6. rom. 4.3. galat. 3.6. ] Abraham beleeued God, and it was imputed vnto him for righteousnesse: and hee was called the friende of God.
[Of the tongue.]
24 [Note:  The conclusion: He is onely iustified that hath that faith which hath workes following it. ] Ye see then howe that of workes a man is [Note: [o] Is proued to be iust. ] iustified, and not of [Note: [p] Of that dead and fruitles faith which you boast of. ] faith onely.
25 [Note:  A fourth reason taken from a like example of Rahab the harlot, who also proued by her workes that she was iustified by a true faith. ] Likewise also was not [Note: Iosh. 2.1. ] Rahab the harlot iustified through workes, when she had receiued ye messengers, & sent them out another way?
26 [Note:  The conclusion repeated againe: faith which bringeth not forth fruites and workes, is not faith, but a dead carcase. ] For as the body without ye spirit is dead, euen so the faith without workes is dead.
3 To shewe that a Christian man must gouerne his tongue with the bridle of faith and charitie, 9 he declareth the commodities and mischiefes that insue thereof: 15 and howe much mans wisedome 17 differeth from heauenly.
1 My [Note:  The sixt part or place: Let no man vsurpe (as most me ambitiously doe) authoritie to iudge and censure others rigorously. ] brethren, be not many masters, [Note:  A reason: Because they prouoke Gods seueritie against themselues, which doe so curiously & rigorously condemne others, being themselues guiltie and faultie. ] knowing that we [Note: [a] Vnlesse we surcease from this masterlike and proud finding fault with others. ] shall receiue the greater condemnation.
2 For in many things we [Note: Or, stumble. ] sinne all. [Note:  The seuenth place, touching the brideling of the tongue, ioyned with the former, so that it is manifest that there is no man which may not iustly be found fault withal, seeing it is a rare vertue to bridle the tongue. ] If any man sinne not in word, he is a perfect man, and able to bridle all the body.
3 [Note:  He sheweth by two similitudes, the one taken fro the bridles of horses, the other from the rudders of shippes, how great matters may be brought to passe by the good moderation of the tongue. ] Beholde, we put bittes into the horses mouthes, that they should obey vs, and we turne about all their bodie.
4 Behold also the shippes, which though they be so great, and are driuen of fierce windes, yet are they turned about with a very small rudder, whither soeuer the gouernour listeth.
5 Euen so the tongue is a litle member, and boasteth of great things: [Note:  On the contrary part he sheweth how great discommodities arise by the intemperancie of the tongue, throughout the whole worlde, to the end that men may so much the more diligently giue themselues to moderate it. ] beholde, howe great a thing a litle fire kindleth.
6 And the tongue is fire, yea, a [Note: [b] An heape of all mischiefes. ] worlde of wickednesse: so is the tongue set among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and [Note: [c] It is able to set the whole world on fire. ] setteth on fire the course of nature, and it is set on fire of hell.
7 For the whole nature of beasts, & of birds, and of creeping things, and things of the sea is tamed, and hath bene tamed of the nature of man.
8 But the tongue can no man tame. It is an vnruly euill, full of deadly poyson.
9 [Note:  Amongst other faultes of the tongue, the Apostle chiefly reproueth backbiting and speaking euill of our neighbours, euen in them especially, which otherwise will seeme godly and religious. ] Therewith blesse we God euen the Father, and therewith curse we men, which are made after the [Note:  He denieth by two reasons, that God can be praised by that man, that vseth cursed speaking or to backbite: first because man is the image of God, which whosoeuer reuerenceth not, doeth not honour God himselfe. ] similitude of God.
10 [Note:  Secondly, because the order of nature which God hath set in things, will not suffer things that are so contrary the one to the other, to stand the one with the other. ] Out of one mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing: my brethren, these things ought not so to be.
11 Doeth a fountaine send forth at one place sweete water and bitter?
12 Can ye figge tree, my brethren, bring forth oliues, either a vine figges? so can no fountaine make both salt water and sweete.
13 [Note:  The eight part which hangeth with the former, touching meekenesse of minde, against which he setteth enuie and a contentious minde. And in the beginning he stoppeth the mouth of the chiefe fountaine of all these mischiefes, to wit, a false persuasion of wisedome, whereas notwithstanding there is no true wisedome, but that is heauenly, and frameth our mindes to all kinde of true moderation and simplicitie. ] Who is a wise man & endued with knowledge among you? let him shew by good conuersation his workes in meekenesse of wisdome.
14 But if ye haue bitter enuying and strife in your hearts, reioyce not, neither be liars against the trueth.
[Friendship of the world.]
15 This wisedome descendeth not from aboue, but is earthly, sensuall, and deuilish.
16 For where enuying and strife is, there is sedition, and all maner of euill workes.
17 But the wisedome that is from aboue, is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, easie to be intreated, full of [Note: [d] He setteth mercie against the fierce and cruell nature of man, and sheweth that heauenly wisedome bringeth forth good fruites, for he that is heauenly wise, referreth all things to Gods glorie, and the profite of his neighbour. ] mercie & good fruites, without iudging, and without hipocrisie.
18 [Note:  Because the worlde perswadeth it selfe that they are miserable which liue peaceably and simplie: on the contrary side the Apostle pronounceth that they shall at the length reape the haruest of peaceable righteousnesse. ] And the fruite of righteousnesse is sowen in peace, of them that make peace.
1 He reckoneth vp the mischiefes that proceede of the workes of the flesh. 7 He exhorteth to humilitie, 8 and to purge the heart 9 from pride, 10 backebiting, 14 and the forgetfulnesse of our owne infirmitie.
1 From [Note:  He goeth on forward in ye same argument, codemning certaine other causes of warres & contentions, to wit, vnbrideled pleasures, and immoderate lustes, by their effectes, for so much as the Lord doth worthily make the voide, so that they bring nothing els to the in whom they are, but vncurable torments. ] whence are warres and contentions among you? are they not hence, euen of your pleasures, that fight in your members?
2 Ye lust, and haue not: ye enuie, and desire immoderately, and cannot obtaine: ye fight and warre, and get nothing, [Note:  He reprehendeth them by name, which are not ashamed to goe about to make God the minister and helper of their lustes & pleasures, in asking things which either are of themselues vnlawfull, or being lawfull, aske them to wicked purposes and vses. ] because ye aske not.
3 Ye aske, and receiue not, because ye aske amisse, that ye might lay the same out on your pleasures.
4 [Note:  An other reason why such vnbrideled lustes and pleasures are vtterly to be condemned, to wit, because that he that giueth himselfe to the world, diuorceth himselfe from God, and breaketh the band of that holy and spirituall mariage. ] Ye adulterers and adulteresses, knowe ye not that the amitie of the world is the enimitie of God? Whosoeuer therefore will be a friend of the world, maketh himselfe the enemie of God.
5 [Note:  The taking away of an obiection: In deede our minds run headlong into these vices, but we ought so much the more diligently take heede of them: which care and studie shall not be in vaine, seeing that God resisteth the stubburne, and giueth that grace to the modest and humble, that surmounteth all those vices. ] Doe ye thinke that the Scripture sayeth in vaine, The spirit that dwelleth in vs, lusteth after enuie?
6 But the Scripture offereth more grace, and therefore sayth, [Note: Pro.3.34. 1.pet.5.5. ] God resisteth the proude, and giueth grace to the humble.
7 [Note: Ephe.4.27. ] [Note:  The conclusion: We must set the contrary vertues against those vices, and therefore whereas we obeyed the suggestions of the deuil, we must submit our mindes to God, and resist the deuil, with a certaine and assured hope of victorie. To be short, we must employ our selues to come nere vnto God by puritie and synceritie of life. ] Submit your selues to God: resist the deuill, and he will flee from you.
8 Drawe neere to God, and he will drawe nere to you. Clense your handes, ye sinners, and purge your hearts, ye double minded.
9 [Note:  He goeth on in the same comparison of contraries, and setteth against those prophane ioyes an earnest sorowe of minde, and against pride and arrogancie, holy modestie. ] Suffer afflictions, and sorrowe ye, and weepe: let your laughter be turned into mourning, and your ioy into [Note: [a] By this worde the Grecians meane an heauinesse ioyned with shamefastnesse, which is to be seene in a cast downe countenance, and setled as it were vpon the grounde. ] heauinesse.
10 [Note: 1.Peter 5.6. ] Cast downe your selues before the Lord, and he will lift you vp.
11 [Note:  He reprehendeth most sharpely another double mischiefe of pride: the one is, in that the proude and arrogant will haue other men to liue according to their will and pleasure, and therefore they doe most arrogantly condemne whatsoeuer pleaseth them not: which thing cannot be done without great iniurie to our onely Lawe maker, for by this meanes his Lawes are founde fault withall, as not circumspectly ynough written, and men chalenge that vnto themselues which properly belongeth to God alone, in that they laye a Lawe vpon mens consciences. ] Speake not euill one of another, brethren. He that speaketh euill of his brother, or he that condemneth his brother, speaketh euill of ye Law, and condemneth the Lawe: and if thou condemnest the Lawe, thou art not an obseruer of the Lawe, but a iudge.
[He threatneth the riche.]
12 There is one Lawgiuer, which is able to saue, and to destroy. [Note: Rom 14 4. ] Who art thou that iudgest another man?
13 [Note:  The other fault is this: That men doe so confidently determine vpon these and those matters and businesses, as though that euery momet of their life did not depend of God. ] Goe to now ye that say, To day or to morowe we will goe into such a citie, and continue there a yeere, and bye and sell, and get gaine,
14 (And yet ye cannot tell what shalbe to morowe. For what is your life? It is euen a vapour that appeareth for a litle time, and afterward vanisheth away)
15 For that ye ought to say, [Note: 1.Cor.4.19. ] If the Lord will, and, if we liue, we will doe this or that.
16 But nowe ye reioyce in your boastings: all such reioycing is euill.
17 [Note:  The conclusion of all the former treatise: The knowledge of the will of God, doeth not onely nothing at all profite, vnlesse the life be answerable vnto it, but also maketh the sinnes farre more grieuous. ] Therefore, to him that knoweth howe to doe well, and doeth it not, to him it is sinne.
1 He threatneth the riche with Gods seuere iudgement, for their pride, 7 that the poore hearing the miserable ende of the riche, 8 may patiently beare afflictions, 11 as Iob did, 14 euen in their distresses.
1 Go [Note:  He denounceth vtter destruction to the wicked and prophane riche men, and such as are drowned in their riotousnesse, mocking at their foolish cofidence when as there is nothing in deede more vaine then such things. ] to nowe, ye rich men: weepe, and howle for your miseries that shall come vpon you.
2 Your riches are corrupt, and your garments are moth eaten.
3 Your gold and siluer is cankred, & the rust of them shalbe a witnesse against you, and shall eate your flesh, as it were fire. Ye haue heaped vp treasure for the last dayes.
4 Behold, the hire of ye labourers, which haue reaped your fieldes (which is of you kept backe by fraude) cryeth, and the cryes of them which haue reaped, are entred into the [Note: [a] The Lord who is more mightie then ye are, hath heard them. ] eares of the Lord of hostes.
5 Ye haue liued in pleasure on the earth, and in wantonnes. Ye haue [Note: [b] Ye haue pampered vp your selues. ] nourished your heartes, as in a [Note: [c] The Hebrewes call a day that is appointed to solemne banketting, a day of slaughter or feasting. ] day of slaughter.
6 Ye haue condemned and haue killed the iust, and he hath not resisted you.
7 [Note:  He applieth that to the poore, which he spake against the riche, warning them to waite for ye Lords comming patiently, who will reuenge the iniuries which the riche men doe them. ] Be patient therefore, brethren, vnto the comming of the Lord. [Note:  The taking away of an obiection: Although his comming seeme to linger, yet at the least we must folowe the husbandmen, who doe patiently wayte for the times that are proper for the fruites of the earth. And againe, God will not deferre the least iote of the time that he hath appointed. ] Behold, the husbandman wayteth for the precious fruite of the earth, and hath long patience for it, vntill he receiue the former, and the latter rayne.
8 Be ye also patient therefore and settle your hearts: for ye comming of the Lord draweth nere.
9 [Note:  He commendeth Christian patience, for that where as other through impatience vse to accuse one an other, the faithfull on the contrary side, complaine not although they receiue iniurie. ] [Note: [d] By grudging he meaneth a certaine inwarde complayning which betokeneth impatiecie. ] Grudge not one against another, brethren, least ye be condemned: [Note:  The conclusion: The Lord is at the doore, who will defend his owne, and reuenge his enemies, and therfore we neede not to trouble our selues. ] behold, the iudge
standeth before the doore.
10 [Note:  Because most men are wont to obiect, that it is good to repell iniuries by what meanes so euer, he setteth against that, the examples of the Fathers, whose patience had a most happie ende, because God as a most bountifull Father, neuer forsaketh his. ] Take, my brethren, the Prophets for an ensample of suffering aduersitie, and of long patience, which haue spoken in the Name of the Lord.
11 Beholde, we count them blessed which endure. Ye haue heard of the patience of Iob, and haue knowen what [Note: [e] What ende the Lorde gaue. ] ende the Lord made. For the Lord is very pitifull and mercifull.
12 [Note:  Because euen the best men sometimes through impatience breake out into othes sometimes lesser, sometimes greater, the Apostle warneth vs to detest such wickednesse, and to accustome our tongues to simple and true talke. ] But before all thinges, my brethren, [Note: Matth.5.34. ] sweare not, neither by heauen, nor by earth, nor by any other othe: but let [Note: [f] That that you haue to say or affirme, speake or affirme it simply, and without an othe: and that that you will denie, deuie it simply and flatly. ] your yea, be yea, and your nay, nay, lest ye fall into condemnation.
13 [Note:  He sheweth the best remedie against all afflictions, to wit, prayers, which haue their place both in sorowe and ioye. ] Is any among you afflicted? Let him pray. Is any merie? Let him sing.
14 [Note:  He sheweth peculiarly, to what physicians especially we must goe, when we are diseased, to wit, to the prayers of the Elders, which then also coulde cure the bodie, (for so much as the gift of healing was then in force) and take away the chiefest cause of sicknesses and diseases, by obteyning for the sicke through their prayers and exhortations, remission of sinnes. ] Is any sicke among you? Let him call for the Elders of the Church, and let them pray for him, and anoynt him with [Note: Mark 6.13. ] [Note: [g] This was a signe of the gift of healing: and nowe seeing we haue the gift no more, the signe is no longer necessarie. ] oyle in the [Note: [h] By calling on the Name of the Lord. ] Name of the Lord.
15 And the prayer of faith shall saue the sicke, and the Lord shall raise him vp: and if he haue committed [Note: [i] He hath reason in making mention of sinnes, for diseases are for the most part sent because of sinnes. ] sinnes, they shalbe forgiuen him.
16 [Note:  Because God pardoneth their sinnes which confesse and acknowledge them, and not theirs which iustifie themselues, therefore the Apostle addeth, that wee ought freely to conferre one with another touching those inwarde diseases, that we may helpe one another with our prayers. ] Acknowledge your faultes one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed: [Note:  He commendeth prayers by the effectes that come of them, that all men may vnderstande that there is nothing more effectuall then they are, so that they proceede from a pure minde. ] for the prayer of a righteous man auaileth much, if it be feruent.
17 [Note: 1.King.17.1 and 18.45. luke 4.25. ] Helias was a man subiect to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rayne, and it rayned not on the earth for three yeeres and sixe moneths.
18 And he prayed againe, and the heauen gaue rayne, and the earth brought forth her fruite.
19 [Note:  The taking away of an obiection: All reprehensions are not condemned, seeing that on the contrary part there is nothing more acceptable to God then to call into the way, a brother that was wandring out of the way. ] Brethren, [Note: Matth.18.15. ] if any of you hath erred from the trueth, and some man hath [Note: [k] Hath called him backe from his way. ] conuerted him,
20 Let him knowe that he which hath conuerted the sinner from going astray out of his way, shall saue a soule from death, and shal hide a multitude of sinnes.