[Christ God and man.]
1 He first sheweth on what authoritie his Apostleship standeth. 15 Then he commendeth the Gospel, 16 by which God setteth out his power to those that are saued 17 by faith, 21 but were guiltie of wicked vnthankfulnesse to God: 26 For which his wrath was worthily powred on them, 39 so that they ranne headlong into all kinds of sinne.
1 Pavl [Note:  The first part of the Epistle conteining a most profitable preface vnto verse 16. ] a [Note:  He mouing the Romanes to giue diligent eare vnto him, in that he sheweth that he commeth not in his owne name, but as Gods messenger vnto the Gentiles, entreateth with them of the waightiest matter that is, promised long since of God, by many fit witnesses, and nowe at the length perfourmed in deede. ] [Note: [a] A Minister, for this word, Seruant, is not taken in this place as set against this word, Freeman, but declareth his ministerie and office. ] seruant of Iesus Christ called to be an [Note: [b] Whereas he said before in a generall terme, that he was a minister, nowe he commeth to a more speciall name, and sayth he is an Apostle, and that he tooke not vpon him this office of his owne head, but being called of God, and therefore in this his writing to the Romanes, doeth nothing but his duetie. ] Apostle, [Note: Actes. 13.1. ] [Note: [c] Appointed of God to preache the Gospel. ] put apart to preache the Gospel of God,
2 (Which he had promised afore by his Prophetes in the holy Scriptures)
3 [Note:  By declaring the summe of the doctrine of the Gospel, he stirreth vp the Romanes to good consideration of the matter whereof he entreateth: So then he sheweth that Christ (who is the very substance and summe of the Gospel) is the onely Sonne of God the Father, who as touching his humanitie, is made of the seede of Dauid, but touching his diuine and spirituall nature, whereby he sanctified himselfe, is begotten of the Father from euerlasting, as by his mightie resurrection manifestly appeareth. ] Concerning his [Note: [d] This is a plaine testimonie of the person of Christ, that he is but one, and of his two natures, and their properties. ] Sonne Iesus Christ our Lord (which was [Note: [e] Which tooke flesh of the Virgin, Dauid his daughter. ] made of the seede of Dauid [Note: [f] As he is man: for this worde, Flesh, by the figure Synecdoche, is taken for man. ] according to the flesh,
4 And [Note: [g] Shewed and made manifest. ] declared [Note: [h] The diuine and mightie power is set against the weakenesse of the flesh, for that ouercame death. ] mightily to be the Sonne of God, touching the Spirit of sanctification by the resurrection from the dead)
5 [Note: [i] Of whom. ] By whom we haue receiued [Note: [k] This marueilous liberall and gracious gift, which is giuen me, the least of all the Saintes, to preach, &c Ephes.3.8. ] grace and Apostleship (that [Note: [l] That men through faith might obey God. ] obedience might be giuen vnto ye faith) for his [Note: [m] For his Names sake. ] Name among al ye Gentiles,
6 Among whom ye be also the [Note: [n] Which through Gods goodnesse, are Christes. ] called of Iesus Christ:
7 To all you that be at Rome beloued of God, called to be Saints: [Note: [o] Gods free good will: by peace, the Hebrewes meane a prosperous successe in all things. ] Grace be with you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lorde Iesus Christ.
8 [Note:  He procureth their fauourable patience, in that he reckoneth vp their true commendation, and his true Apostolique good will toward them, confirmed by taking God himselfe to witnesse. ] First I thanke my God through Iesus Christ for you all, because your faith is [Note: [p] Because your faith is such, that it is commended in all Churches. ] published throughout the [Note: [q] In all Churches. ] whole world.
9 For God is my witnesse (whom I serue in my [Note: [r] Very willingly and with all my heart. ] spirit in the [Note: [s] In preaching his sonne. ] Gospel of his Sonne) that without ceasing I make mention of you
10 Alwayes in my prayers, beseeching that by some meanes, one time or other I might haue a prosperous iourney by the will of God, to come vnto you.
11 For I long to see you, that I might bestowe among you some spirituall gift, that you might be strengthened:
12 That is, that [Note: [t] Though Paul were neuer so excellent, yet by teaching the Church, he might be instructed by it. ] I might be comforted together with you, through our mutuall faith, both yours and mine.
13 Now my brethren, I would that ye should not be ignorant, how that I haue oftentimes purposed
[What the Gospel is.]
to come vnto you (but haue bene let hitherto) that I might haue some fruite also among you, as I haue among the other Gentiles.
14 I am detter both to the Grecians, and to the Barbarians, both to the wise men and vnto the vnwise.
15 Therefore, as much as in me is, I am readie to preach ye Gospel to you also that are at [Note: [u] He meaneth all them that dwelt in Rome, though some of them were not Romaines, Looke the end of the epistle. ] Rome.
16 For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ: [Note:  The seconde part of the Epistle vnto the beginning of the 9.chap. Nowe the whole ende and purpose of the disputation is this: that is to say, to shewe that there is but one way to atteine vnto saluation (which is set forth vnto vs of God in the Gospel, without any difference of nations) and that is Iesus Christ appreheded by faith. ] for it is the [Note: [x] God his mightie and effectuall instrument to saue men by. ] power of God vnto saluation to euery one that beleeueth, to the Iewe first, and also to the [Note: [y] When this word, Grecian, is set against this word, Iewe, then doeth it signifie a Gentile. ] Grecian.
17 [Note:  The confirmation of the former proposition: we are taught in the Gospel, that we are iustified before God by faith which encreaseth daily: and therfore also saued. ] For by it the righteousnesse of God is reueiled from [Note: [z] From faith which encreaseth daily. ] faith to faith: [Note:  The proofe as well of the first as the second proposition, out of Abakuk, who attributeth and giueth vnto faith, both iustice and life before God. ] as it is written, [Note: Abak.2.4. ] The iust shall liue by faith.
18 [Note:  An other confirmation of that principal question: All men being considered in them selues, or without Christ, are guiltie both of vngodlinesse and also vnrighteousnesse, and therfore are subiect to condemnation: Therfore must they needes seeke righteousnes in some other. ] For the wrath of God is reueiled from heauen against [Note: [a] Against all kinds of vngodlines. ] all vngodlinesse, and vnrighteousnesse of men, which withhold the [Note: [b] By trueth Paul meaneth all the light that is left in man since his still, not as though they being led thereby were able to come into fauour with God, but that their owne reason might codemne them of wickednes both against God and man. ] trueth in vnrighteousnesse.
19 [Note:  Their vngodlines he proueth hereby, that although all men haue a most cleare and euident glasse wherein to behold the euerlasting and almightie nature of God, euen in his creatures, yet haue they fallen away from those principles to most foolish and fond deuises of their owne braines, in constituting and appointing the seruice of God. ] Forasmuch as that, which may be knowe of God, is manifest in [Note: [c] In their hearts. ] them: for God hath shewed it vnto them.
20 For the inuisible things of him, that is, his eternal power & Godhead, are seene by ye creation of the worlde, being [Note: [d] Thou seest not God, and yet thou acknowledgest him as God by his workes, Cicero. ] considered in his workes, to the intent that they should be without excuse:
21 Because that when they knewe God, they [Note: [e] They did not honour him with that honour and seruice, which was meete for his euerlasting power and Godhead. ] glorified him not as God, neither were thankefull, but became [Note: [f] As if he said, became so mad of themselues. ] vaine in their thoughtes, and their foolish heart was full of darkenesse.
22 When they [Note: [g] Or, thought them selues. ] professed themselues to be wise, they became fooles.
23 For they turned the glorie of the [Note: [h] For the true God they tooke another. ] incorruptible God to the similitude of the image of a corruptible man, and of birdes, and foure footed beastes, and of creeping things.
24 [Note:  The vnrighteousnes of men he setteth forth first in this, that euen against nature following their lustes, they defiled themselues one with another, by the iust iudgement of God. ] Wherefore [Note: [i] The contempt of religion is the fountaine of all mischiefe. ] also God [Note: [k] As a iust Iudge. ] gaue them vp to their hearts lusts, vnto vncleannesse, to defile their owne bodies betweene themselues:
25 Which turned the trueth of God vnto a lie, and worshipped and serued the creature, forsaking the Creator, which is blessed for euer, Amen.
26 For this cause God gaue them vp vnto vile affections: for euen their women did change the naturall vse into that which is against nature.
27 And likewise also the men left the naturall vse of the woman, and burned in their lust one toward another, and man with man wrought filthinesse, and receiued in themselues such [Note: [l] A meete rewarde for their deserts. ] recompence of their errour, as was meete.
[The reward of ingratitude.]
28 [Note:  He prooueth the vnrighteousnesse of man by a large rehearsall of many kindes of wickednesse, from which (if not from all, yet at the least from manie of them) no man is altogether free. ] For as they regarded not to acknowledge God, euen so God deliuered them vp vnto a [Note: [m] Into a mad and frowarde minde, whereby it commeth to passe, that the conscience being once put out, and hauing almost no more remorse of sinne, men runne headlong into all kinde of mischiefe. ] reprobate minde, to doe those things which are not conuenient,
29 Being full of all vnrighteousnesse, fornication, wickednes, couetousnes, maliciousnes, full of enuie, of murther, of debate, of deceit, taking all things in the euill part, whisperers,
30 Backbiters, haters of God, doers of wrong, proude, boasters, inuenters of euil things, disobedient to parents, without vnderstanding, [Note: [n] Vnmindefull of their couenants and bargaines. ] couenant breakers, without naturall affection, such as can neuer be appeased, mercilesse.
31 Which men, though they knew ye [Note: [o] By the lawe of God hee meaneth that which the Philosophers called the Lawe of nature, and the Lawyers themselues termed the Lawe of Nations. ] Lawe of God, how that they which comit such things are worthie of death, yet not onely do the same, but also [Note: [p] Are fellowes and partakers with them in their wickednesse, and beside that, commende them which doe amisse. ] fauour them that doe them.
1 Hee bringeth all before the iudgement seate of God. 12 The excuse that the Gentiles might pretend 14 of ignorance, he taketh quite away. 17 He vrgeth the Iewes with the written Lawe, 23 in which they boasted: 27 And so maketh both Iewe and Gentile alike.
1 Therefore [Note:  Hee conuinceth them which woulde seeme to be exempt out of the number of other men, because they reprehend other mens faults, and sayeth, that they are least of all to be excused, for if they were wel and narrowly searched (as God surely doeth) they themselues woulde be founde gultie in those thinges which they reprehend, and punish in other: so that in condemning other, they pronounce sentence against theselues. ] thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoeuer thou art that condemnest: for in that that thou condemnest another, thou condemnest thy selfe: for thou that condemnest, doest the same things.
2 But we [Note: [a] Paul alledgeth no places of Scripture, for he reasoneth generally against all men: but he bringeth such reasons as euery ma is persuaded of in his minde, so that the deuill him selfe is not able to plucke them cleane out. ] know that the iudgement of God is according to [Note: [b] Considering and iudging thinges aright, & not by any outward shewe. ] trueth, against them which comit such things.
3 And thinkest thou this, O thou man, that condemnest them which doe such thinges, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the iudgement of God?
4 [Note:  A vehement and grieuous crying out against them that please themselues because they see more then other doe, and yet are no whit better then others are. ] Or despisest thou the riches of his bountifulnesse, and patience, and long sufferance, not knowing that the bountifulnesse of God leadeth thee to repentance?
5 But thou, after thine hardnesse, and heart that canot repent, [Note: Iam.5.3. ] [Note: [c] Whilest thou giuest thy selfe to pleasures, thinking to encrease thy goods, thou shalt finde God his wrath. ] heapest vp as a treasure vnto thy selfe wrath against the day of wrath, and of the declaration of the iust iudgement of God,
6 [Note:  The ground of the former disputation, That both the Iewes & Gentiles haue altogether neede of righteousnes. ] [Note: Psal.62.12. mat.16.27. reu.22.12. ] Who wil reward euery man according to his woorkes:
7 That is, to them which through patience in well doing, seeke [Note: [d] Glorie which followeth good workes, which he laieth not out before vs, as though there were any that coulde attaine to saluation by his owne strength, but, by laying this condition of saluation before vs, which no man can performe, to bring men to Christ, who alone iustifieth the beleeuers, as he himselfe concludeth, chap.2.21,22. following. ] glorie, and honour, and immortalitie, euerlasting life:
8 But vnto them that are contentious and disobey the [Note: [e] By trueth, hee meaneth that knowledge which we haue of nature. ] trueth, and obey vnrighteousnesse, shalbe [Note: [f] Gods indignation against sinners, which shall quickely bee kindled. ] indignation and wrath.
9 Tribulation and anguish shalbe vpon the soule of euery man that doeth euill: of the Iewe first, and also of the Grecian.
10 But to euery man that doeth good, shalbe glory, and honour, and peace: to the Iew first, and also to the Grecian.
11 For there is [Note: [g] God doeth not measure men either by their blood or by their countrey, either to receiue them, or to cast them away. ] no respect of persons wt God.
[All are sinners.]
12 [Note:  He applieth that general accusation of mankinde particularly both to the Gentiles, & to the Iewes. ] For as many as haue sinned without the Lawe, shall perish also without the Lawe: and as many as haue sinned in the Lawe, shall be iudged by the Lawe,
13 [Note:  He preueteth an obiection which might be made by the Iewes, whome the Law doeth not excuse, by condemne, because yt not the hearing of the Lawe, but the keeping of ye Law doeth iustifie. ] (For the hearers of the Lawe are not righteous before God: but the doers of the Lawe shalbe [Note: [h] Shalbe pronounced iust before Gods iudgement seat: which is true in deede if any such could be found that had fulfilled the Law: but seeing Abraham was not iustified by ye Law, but by faith, it followeth that no man can be iustified by woorkes. ] iustified.
14 [Note:  He preuenteth an obiection which might bee made by the Gentiles, who although they haue not the Lawe of Moses, yet they haue no reason whereby they may excuse their wickednesse, in yt they haue somewhat written in their heartes in steade of a Lawe, as men, that forbid and punish some thinges as wicked, and commaunde and commend other some as good. ] For when the Gentiles which haue [Note: [i] Not simplie, but in comparison of the Iewes. ] not the Lawe, doe by [Note: [k] Command honest things, and forbid dishonest. ] nature, the things conteined in the Lawe, they hauing not the Lawe, are a Lawe vnto themselues,
15 Which shew the effect of the Lawe [Note: [l] This knowledge is a naturall knowledge. ] written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witnes, and their thoughts accusing one another, or excusing,)
16 [Note:  God deferreth many iudgements, which notwithstanding he will execute at their conuenient time by Iesus Christ, with a most strait examination, not onely of wordes and deedes, but of thoughts also, be they neuer so hidden or secrete. ] At the day when God shall iudge the secretes of men by Iesus Christ, according to [Note: [m] As this my doctrine witnesseth, which I am appointed to preach. ] my Gospel.
17 ¶ [Note:  He proueth by the testimonie of Dauid & the other Prophets, yt God bestowed greatest benefits vpon ye Iewes, in giuing them also the Law, but yt they are the most vnthankefull and vnkindest of all men. ] Beholde, thou art called a Iewe, and restest in the Lawe, and gloriest in God,
18 And knowest his will, and [Note: [n] Canst trie and discerne what thinges swerue from God his wil. ] [Note: Or, allowest the things that are excellent. ] triest the things that dissent from it, in that thou art instructed by the Lawe:
19 And persuadest thy selfe that thou art a guide of the blinde, a light of them which are in darkenesse,
20 An instructer of them which lacke discretion, a teacher of the vnlearned, which hast the [Note: [o] The way to teach and frame other in the knowledge of the truth. ] forme of knowledge, & of the truth in ye [Note: [p] As though he said, that the Iewes vnder a colour of an outward seruing of God, chalenged all to them selues, when as in deede, they did nothing lesse then obserue the Lawe. ] Law.
21 Thou therefore, which teachest another, teachest thou not thy selfe? thou that preachest, A man should not steale, doest thou steale?
22 Thou that saist, A man should not commit adulterie, doest thou commit adulterie? thou that abhorrest idoles, committest thou sacrilege?
23 Thou that gloriest in the Lawe, through breaking the Lawe, dishonourest thou God?
24 For ye Name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, [Note: Esai.52.5. ezek.36.20. ] as it is written.
25 [Note:  He precisely preuenteth their obiection, which set an holines in circumcision, & the outward obseruation of the Lawe: So that he sheweth that the outward circumcision, if it be separated from the inward, doth not only not iustifie, but also condemne them yt are in deede circumcised, of who it requireth that, which it signifieth, that is to say, cleannes of the heart & the whole life according to the commandement of the Law so that if there be a man vncircumcised according to the flesh, who is circumcised in heart, hee is farre better and more to bee accompted of, then any Iewe that is circumcised according to the flesh onely. ] For circucision verely is profitable, if thou do the Lawe: but if thou be a transgressour of the Lawe, thy circumcision is made vncircumcision.
26 Therefore if the [Note: [q] This is the figure Metonymie, for, if the vncircumcised. ] vncircumcision keepe the ordinances of the Lawe, shall not his [Note: [r] The state & condition of the vncircumcised. ] vncircumcision be counted for circumcision?
27 And shall not [Note: [s] He which is the vncircumcised by nature and blood. ] vncircumcision which is by nature (if it keepe the Lawe) condemne thee which by the [Note: [t] Paul vseth oftentimes to set the letter against the Spirit: but in this place, the circucision which is according to the letter, is the cutting off of the foreskin, but the circucision of the Spirit, is the circumcision of the heart, ye is to say, the spiritual end of the ceremonie, is true holines & righteousnes, whereby the people of God is knowen from prophane & heathnish me. ] letter and circumcision art a transgressour of the Lawe?
28 For hee is not a Iewe, which is one [Note: [u] By the outward ceremonie only. ] outwarde: [Page]
[The Iewes preferment.]
neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:
29 But he is a Iewe which is one wtin, and the circumcision is of the heart, in the [Note: [x] Whose force is inward, and in the heart. ] spirite not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God.
1 He giueth the Iewes some 2 preferment, for the couenants sake, 4 but yet such, as wholy dependeth on Gods mercie. 9 That both Iewes and Gentiles are sinners, 11 he proueth by Scripture: 19 and shewing the vse of the Lawe, 28 hee concludeth that we are iustified by faith.
1 What [Note:  The first meeting with, or preuenting an obiectio of the Iewes: what then, haue ye Iewes no more preferment then the Gentiles? yes, that haue they, sayeth the Apostle, on Gods behalfe, for he committed the tables of the couenant to them, so that the vnbeliefe of a few, can not cause the whole nation without exception to be cast away of God, who is true, and who also vseth their vnworthinesse to commend and set forth his goodnesse. ] is then the preferment of the Iewe? or what is the profite of circumcision?
2 Much euery maner of way: for [Note: [a] The Iewes state and condition was chiefest. ] chiefly, because vnto them were of credite committed the [Note: [b] Woordes. ] oracles of God.
3 For what, though some did [Note: [c] Brake ye couenat. ] not beleeue? shall their vnbeliefe make the [Note: [d] The faith that God gaue. ] faith of God without effect?
4 God forbid: yea, let God be true, and euery man a lyar, as it is written, That thou mightest be [Note: [e] That thy iustice might be plainely seene. ] iustified in thy words, and ouercome, [Note: [f] For asmuch as thou shewedst forth an euident token of thy righteousnesse, constancy, & faith, by preseruing him who had broken his couenant. ] when thou art iudged.
5 [Note:  An other preuetion, issuing out of the former answere: that the iustice of God is in such sort commended and set foorth by our vnrighteousnes, that therefore God forgetteth not that hee is the iudge of the worlde, and therefore a most seuere reuenger of vnrighteousnes. ] Now if our [Note: [g] Trecherie, and all the fruites thereof. ] vnrighteousnes comend the righteousnes of God, what shal we say? Is God vnrighteous which punisheth? (I speake as [Note: [h] Therefore I speake not these woordes in mine owne person, as though I thought so, but this is the talke of mans wisedom, which is not subiect to the will of God. ] a man.)
6 God forbid: els how shal God iudge ye world?
7 [Note:  A third obiection, which addeth somewhat to the former, If sinnes doe turne to the glorie of God, they are not only not to be punished, but we ought rather to giue our selues to them: which blasphemie Paul contending himselfe to curse and detest, pronounceth iust punishment against such blasphemers. ] For if the [Note: [i] The trueth and constancie. ] veritie of God hath more abounded through my lye vnto his glorie, why am I yet condemned as a sinner?
8 And (as we are blamed, & as some affirme, that we say) why doe we not euil, that good may come thereof? whose damnation is iust.
9 [Note:  An other answere to the first obiection: that the Iewes, if they be considered in themselues, are no better then other men are: as it hath beene long since pronounced by the mouth of the Prophets. ] What then? are we more excellent? No, in no wise: for we haue alreadie prooued, that all, both Iewes and Gentiles are [Note: [k] Are guiltie of sinne. ] vnder sinne,
10 As it is written, [Note: Psal. 14.1,3. & 53.1,3. ] There is none righteous, no not one.
11 There is none that vnderstandeth: there is none that seeketh God.
12 They haue all gone out of the way: they haue bene made altogether vnprofitable: there is none that doeth good, no not one.
13 [Note: Psal. 5. 10. ] Their throte is an open sepulchre: they haue vsed their tongues to deceit: [Note: Psal.140. 3 ] the poyson of aspes is vnder their lippes.
14 [Note: Psal.10.7. ] Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitternesse.
15 [Note: Esai.59.7. ] Their feete are swift to shead blood.
16 Destruction & calamity are in their waies,
17 And ye [Note: [l] An innocent and peaceable life. ] way of peace they haue not knowen.
18 [Note: Psal.36.1. ] The feare of God is not before their eies.
19 [Note:  Hee prooueth that this grieuous accusation which is vttered by Dauid and Esaias, doeth properly concerne the Iewes. ] Now we know that whatsoeuer ye [Note: [m] The Lawe of Moses. ] Lawe saieth, it saieth it to them which are vnder ye Law, that [Note:  A conclusion of all the former disputation, from the 18. verse of the first chapter. Therefore sayeth the Apostle, No man can hope to be iustified by any Law, whether it bee that generall Law, or the particular Lawe of Moses, and therefore to be saued: seeing it appeareth (as we haue already prooued) by comparing the Law and mans life together, that all men are sinners, and therefore worthie of condemnation in the sight of God. ] euery mouth may bee stopped, and all the
[Iustification by faith.]
world be [Note: [n] Bee found guiltie before God. ] subiect to the iudgement of God.
20 Therefore by the [Note: [o] By that, that the Lawe can by vs be performed. ] woorkes of the Lawe shall no [Note: [p] Flesh, is here taken for man as in many other places, and furthermore hath here a greater force: for it is put to shewe the contrarietie betwixt God and man: as if you woulde say, Man who is nothing els but a piece of flesh, defiled with sinne, and God who is most pure and most perfite in himselfe. ] flesh be [Note: [q] Absolued before the iudgement seate of God. ] iustified in his [Note: [r] A secrete setting of the righteousnesse which is before men, be they neuer so iust, against the iustice which can stande before God: nowe there is no righteousnesse can stande before God, but the righteousnesse of Christ onely. ] sight: for by the Lawe commeth the knowledge of sinne.
21 [Note:  Therefore sayeth the Apostle, Least that men shoulde perish, God doeth nowe exhibite that, which hee promised of olde, that is to say, a way whereby wee may bee iustified and saued before him without the Lawe. ] But nowe is the righteousnesse, of God made manifest without the Lawe, hauing witnes of the Lawe and of the Prophets,
22 [Note:  The matter, as it were, of this righteousnesse is Christ Iesus apprehended by faith, and for this ende offred to all people, as without him all people are shut out from the kingdome of God. ] To wit, the righteousnesse of God by the faith of [Note: [s] Which we giue to Iesus Christ, or which resteth vpon him. ] Iesus Christ, vnto all, and vpon all that beleeue.
23 For there is no difference: for all haue sinned, and are depriued of the [Note: [t] By the glorie of God, is meant that marke which we all shoote at, that is, euerlasting life, which standeth in that wee are made partakers of the glory of God. ] glorie of God,
24 [Note:  Therefore this righteousnesse touching vs, is altogether freely giuen, for it standeth vpon those thinges which we haue not done our selues, but such as Christ hath suffered for our sakes, to deliuer vs from sinne. ] And are iustified [Note: [u] Of his free gift, and mere liberalitie. ] freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Iesus,
25 [Note:  God then is the authour of that free iustification because it pleased him: and Christ is hee, which suffered punishment for our sinnes, and in whome we haue remission of them: and the meane whereby we apprehende Christ, is faith. To bee short, the ende is the setting foorth of the goodnesse of God, that by this meanes it may appeare, that hee is mercifull in deede, and constant in his promises, as hee that freely, and of meere grace, iustifieth the beleeuers. ] Whom God hath set forth to be a reconciliation through faith in his [Note: [x] This name of blood, calleth vs backe to the figure of the olde sacrifices, the trueth and substance of which sacrifices, is in Christ. ] blood to declare his righteousnes, by the forgiuenesse of the sinnes that [Note: [y] Of those sinnes which wee committed, when we were his enemies. ] are passed,
26 Through the [Note: [z] Through his patience, and suffering nature. ] patience of God, to shewe at [Note: [a] To wit, when Paul wrote this. ] this time his righteousnesse, that hee might be [Note: [b] That hee might bee founde exceeding true and faithfull. ] iust, and a [Note: [c] Making him iust and without blame, by imputing Christes righteousnesse vnto him. ] iustifier of him which is of the [Note: [d] Of the nomber of them which by faith lay holde vpon Christ: contrarie to whome are they, which looke to be saued by circumcision, that is, by the Lawe. ] faith of Iesus.
27 [Note:  An argument to prooue this conclusion, that we are iustified by faith without woorkes, taken from the ende of iustification. The end of iustification is the glorie of God alone: therefore we are iustified by faith without woorkes: for if wee were iustified either by our owne woorkes onely, or partly by faith, and partly by woorkes, the glorie of this iustification shoulde not be wholy giuen to God. ] Where is then the reioycing? It is excluded. By what [Note: [e] By what doctrine? nowe the doctrine of woorkes hath this condition ioyned with it, if thou doest: and the doctrine of faith, hath this condition, if thou beleeuest. ] Lawe? of woorkes? Nay: but by the Lawe of faith.
28 Therefore we conclude, that a man is iustified by faith, without the workes of the Lawe.
29 [Note:  An other argument of an absurditie: if iustification depended vpon the Lawe of Moses, then shoulde God bee a Sauiour to the Iewes onely. Againe: if hee shoulde saue the Iewes after one sort, and the Gentiles after another, hee shoulde not bee one and like himselfe. Therefore hee will iustifie both of them after one selfe same maner, that is to say, by faith. Moreouer, this argument must be ioyned to that which followeth next, that his conclusion may bee firme and euident. ] God, is he the God of the [Note: [f] God is sayde to be their God, after the maner of the scripture, whome hee loueth and tendereth. ] Iewes onely, and not of the Gentiles also? Yes, euen of the Gentiles also.
30 For it is one God, who shall iustifie [Note: [g] The circumcised. ] circumcision of faith, and vncircumcision through faith.
31 [Note:  The taking away of an obiection: yet is not the Lawe taken away therefore, but is rather established, as it shall be declared in his proper place. ] Doe we then make the Lawe of [Note: [h] Vaine, voide, to no purpose, and of no force. ] none effect through faith? God forbid: yea, we [Note: [i] Wee make it effectuall and strong. ] establish the Lawe.
[Abraham iustified by fayth.]
1 He proueth that which he said before of faith, by the example of Abraham. 3, 6 and the testimonie of the Scripture: and tenne times in the chapter he beateth vpon this worde imputation.
1 What [Note:  A newe argument of great waight, taken from the example of Abraham the father of all beleeuers: And thus is the proposition, If Abraham be considered in himselfe by his workes, he hath deserued nothing wherein to reioyce with God. ] shal we say then, that Abraham our father hath found concerning the [Note: [a] By workes as appeareth in the next verse. ] flesh?
2 [Note:  A preuenting of an obiection: Abraham may well reioyce, and extoll himselfe amongst men, but not with God. ] For if Abraham were iustified by workes, he hath wherein to reioyce, but not with God.
3 [Note:  A confirmation of the proposition: Abraham was iustified by imputation of faith, therefore freely without any respect of his workes. ] For what saith the Scripture? Abraham beleeued God, and it was counted to him for righteousnesse.
4 [Note:  The first proofe of the confirmation, taken of contraries: to him that deserueth any thing by his labour, the wages is not counted by fauour, but by dette: but to him that hath done nothing but beleeueth in him which promiseth freely, faith is imputed. ] Nowe to him that [Note: [b] To him that hath deserued any thing by his worke. ] worketh, the wages is not [Note: [c] Is not reckoned nor giuen him. ] counted by fauour, but by dette:
5 But to him that worketh not, but beleeueth in him that [Note: [d] That maketh him which is wicked in himselfe, iust in Christ. ] iustifieth the vngodly, his faith is counted for righteousnesse.
6 [Note:  Another proofe of the same confirmation: Dauid putteth blessednesse in free pardon of sinnes, therefore iustification also. ] Euen as Dauid declareth the blessednesse of the man, vnto whom God imputeth righteousnes without workes, saying,
7 Blessed are they, whose iniquities are forgiuen, and whose sinnes are couered.
8 Blessed is the man, to whom the Lord imputeth not sinne.
9 [Note:  A newe proposition: that this maner of iustification belongeth both to the vncircumcised, and also to the circumcised: as is declared in the person of Abraham. ] Came this [Note: [e] This saying of Dauid, wherein he pronounceth them blessed. ] blessednesse then vpon the circumcision onely, or vpon the vncircumcision also? For we say, that faith was imputed vnto Abraham for righteousnesse.
10 [Note:  He proueth that it belongeth to the vncircumcised (for there was no doubt of the circumcised) in this sort: Abraham was iustified in vncircumcision, therefore this iustification belongeth also to the vncircumcised. Nay it doeth not apperteine to the circumcised, in respect of the circumcision, much lesse are the vncircumcised shut out for their vncircumcision. ] Howe was it then imputed? when he was circumcised, or vncircumcised? not when he was cricumcised, but when he was vncircumcised.
11 [Note:  A preuenting of an obiection: Why then was Abraham circumcised, if he were already iustified? That the gift of righteousnesse (sayeth he) might be confirmed in him. ] After, he receiued the [Note: [f] Circumcision, which is a signe: as we say the Sacrament of Baptisme, for Baptisme which is a Sacrament. ] signe of circumcision, as the [Note: [g] Circumcision, was called before, a signe, in respect of the outward ceremonie: nowe Paul sheweth the force and substance of that signe, that is, to what end it is vsed, to wit, not onely to signifie, but also to seale vp the righteousnesse of faith, whereby we come to possesse Christ himselfe: for the holy Ghost worketh that inwardly in deede, which the Sacraments being ioyned with the worde, doe represent. ] seale of the righteousnesse of ye faith which he had, when he was vncircumcised, [Note:  An applying of the example of Abraham to the vncircumcised beleeuers, whose father also he maketh Abraham. ] that he should be the father of all them that beleeue, not being circumcised, that righteousnesse might be imputed to them also,
12 [Note:  An applying of the same example, to the circumcised beleeuers, whose father Abraham is, but yet by faith. ] And the father of circumcision, not vnto them onely which are of the circumcision, but vnto them also that walke in the steppes of the faith of our father Abraham, which he had when he was vncircumcised.
13 [Note:  A reason why the seede of Abraham is to be esteemed by faith, because that Abraham himselfe through faith was made partaker of that promes, whereby he was made the father of all nations. ] For the promise that he should be the [Note: [h] That all the nations of the worlde, should be his children: or by the worlde may be vnderstoode the land of Canaan. ] heire of the worlde, was not giuen to Abraham, or to his seede, through the [Note: [i] For workes that he had done, or vpon this condition, that he should fulfill the Lawe. ] Lawe, but through the righteousnesse of faith.
14 [Note:  A double confirmation of that reason: the one is, that the promise cannot be apprehended by the Lawe, and therefore it should be frustrate: the other, that the condition of faith shoulde be ioyned in vaine to that promise which shoulde be apprehended by workes. ] For if they which are of the [Note: [k] If they be heires which haue fulfilled the Lawe. ] Lawe, be
[Abraham iustified by fayth.]
heires, faith is made voide, & the promise is made of none effect.
15 [Note:  A reason of the first confirmation: why the promise cannot be apprehended by the Lawe: because that the Lawe doeth not reconcile God and vs, but rather denounceth his anger against vs, for so much as no man can obserue it. ] For the Lawe causeth wrath: for where no Lawe is, there is no transgression.
16 [Note:  The conclusion of this argument: The saluation and iustification of all the posteritie of Abraham (that is, of the Church which is gathered together of all people) proceedeth of faith which layeth hold on the promise made vnto Abraham, and which promise, Abraham himselfe first of all laide holde on. ] Therefore it is by faith, that it might come by grace, and the promise might be sure to all the [Note: [l] To all the beleeuers. ] seede, [Note:  That is to say, not onely of them which beleeue and are also circumcised according to the Lawe, but of them also which without circumcision, and in respect of faith onely, are counted amongst the children of Abraham. ] not to that onely which is of the Lawe: but also to that which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of vs all,
17 (As it is written, I haue made thee a [Note:  This fatherhood is spirituall, depending onely vpon the vertue of God, who made the promise. ] father of many nations) euen before [Note: [m] Before God, that is by a spirituall kindred, which hath place before God, and maketh vs acceptable to God. ] God whom he beleeued, who [Note: [n] Who restoreth to life. ] quickeneth the dead, and [Note: [o] With whom those things are already, which as yet are not in deede, as he that can with a word make what he will of nothing. ] calleth those thinges which be not, as though they were.
18 [Note:  A discription of true faith wholy resting in ye power of God, & his good wil, set forth in the example of Abraham. ] Which Abraham aboue hope, beleeued vnder hope, that he should be the father of many nations: according to that which was spoken to him, So shall thy seede be.
19 And he [Note: [p] Very strong and constant. ] not weake in the faith, considered not his owne bodie, which was nowe [Note: [q] Voide of strength, and vnmeete to get childre. ] dead, being almost an hundreth yeere olde, neither the deadnes of Saraes wombe.
20 Neither did he doubt of the promise of God through vnbeliefe, but was strengthened in the faith, and gaue [Note: [r] Acknowledged & praised God, as most gracious & true. ] glorie to God,
21 Being [Note: [s] A descriptio of true faith. ] fully assured that he which had promised, was also able to doe it.
22 And therefore it was imputed to him for righteousnesse.
23 [Note:  The rule of iustification is alwayes one, both in Abraham, and in all the faithful: that is to say, faith in God, who after that there was made a full satisfaction for our sinnes in Christ our mediator, raised him from the dead, yt we also being iustified, might be saued in him. ] Nowe it is not written for him onely, that it was imputed to him for righteousnesse,
24 But also for vs, to whom it shalbe imputed for righteousnesse, which beleeue in him that raised vp Iesus our Lord from the dead,
25 Who was deliuered to death for our [Note: [t] To pay the ransome for our sinnes. ] sinnes, and is risen againe for our iustification.
1 He amplifieth 2 Christes righteousnesse, which is layde holde on by faith, 5 who was giuen for the weake, 8 and sinfull. 14 He compareth Christ with Adam, 17 Death with Life, 20 and the Lawe with Grace.
1 Then being [Note:  An other argument taken of the effects: we are iustified with that, which truely appeaseth our conscience before God: but faith in Christ doeth appease our conscience, & not the Law, as it was before said, therefore by faith we are iustified and not by the Law. ] iustified by faith, we haue peace toward God through our Lord Iesus Christ.
2 [Note: Ephe.2.18. ] [Note:  Whereas quietnes of conscience is attributed to faith, it is to be referred to Christ, who is the giuer of faith it selfe, & in whom faith it selfe is effectuall. ] By who also through faith, we haue [Note: [a] We must here know, that we haue yet still this same effect of faith. ] had this accesse into this grace, [Note: [b] By which grace, that is, by which gracious loue & good will, or that state wherevnto we are graciously taken. ] wherein we [Note: [c] We stand stedfast. ] stand, [Note:  A preuenting of an obiection against them, which beholding the daily miseries & calamities of the Church, thinke that the Christians dreame, when they brag of their felicitie: to whom the Apostle answereth, yt their felicitie is laid vp vnder hope in another place: which hope is so certaine & sure, that they do no lesse reioyce for that happines, then if they did presently enioy it. ] and [Note: [d] Our mindes are not only quiet & seiled, but also we are marueilously glad, & conceiue great ioy for that heauely inheritance which waiteth for vs. ] reioyce vnder ye hope of the glory of God.
3 [Note:  Tribulation it selfe giueth vs diuers and sundrie wayes occasion to reioyce, much lesse doth it make vs miserable. ] Neither that onely, but also we [Note: Iam. 1.2. ] reioyce in tribulations, [Note:  Afflictions accustome vs to patience, and patience assureth vs of the goodnes of God, and this experience confirmeth and fostereth our hope, which neuer deceiueth vs. ] knowing that tribulation bringeth [Page]
[Gods great loue.]
4 And patience experience, and experience hope,
5 [Note:  The ground of hope is an assured testimonie of the conscience, by the gift of the holy Ghost, that we are beloued of God, and this is nothing els but that which we call faith, whereof it followeth, that through faith our consciences are quieted. ] And hope maketh not ashamed, because the [Note: [e] Wherewith he loueth vs. ] loue of God is shed abroade in our heartes by the holy Ghost, which is giuen vnto vs.
6 [Note:  A sure comfort in aduersitie, that our peace and quietnesse of conscience be not troubled: for he that so loued them that were of no stregth and while they were yet sinners, that he died for them, how can he neglect them being nowe sanctified and liuing in him? ] For Christ, when we were yet of no strength, at his [Note: [f] In time fit and conuenient which the Father had appointed. ] time died for the [Note: Hebr. 9.15. 1.peter 3. 18. ] vngodly.
7 [Note:  An amplifying of the loue of God toward vs, so that we cannot doubt of it, who deliuered Christ to death for the vniust, and for them of whom he coulde receiue no commoditie, and (that more is) for his very enemies. Howe can it be then that Christ being nowe aliue, shoulde not saue them from destruction, whom by his death he iustifieth and reconcileth? ] Doutles one will scarce die [Note: [g] In the steade of some iust man. ] for a righteous man: but yet for a good man it may be that one dare die.
8 But God [Note: [h] He setteth out his loue vnto vs, that in the middest of our afflictions, we may knowe assuredly, he will be present with vs. ] setteth out his loue towards vs, seeing that while we were yet [Note: [i] While sinne reigned in vs. ] sinners, Christ died for vs.
9 Much more then, being now iustified by his blood, we shalbe saued from [Note: [k] From affliction, and destruction. ] wrath through him.
10 For if when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Sonne, much more being reconciled, we shalbe saued by his life,
11 [Note:  He nowe passeth ouer to the other part of Iustification, which consisteth in the free imputation of the obedience of Christ: so that to the remission of sinnes, there is added moreouer and besides, the gifte of Christes righteousnesse imputed or put vpon vs by faith, which swalloweth vp that vnrighteousnesse which flowed from Adam into vs, and all the fruites thereof: so that in Christ we doe not onely cease to be vniust, but we begin also to be iust. ] And not onely so, but we also reioyce in God through our Lord Iesus Christ, by whom we haue nowe receiued the atonement.
12 [Note:  From Adam in whom all haue sinned, both guiltinesse and death (which is the punishment of the guiltinesse) came vpon all. ] Wherefore, as by [Note: [l] By Adam, who is compared with Christ, like to him in this, that both of them make those which are theirs, partakers of that they haue: but they are vnlike in this, that Adam deriueth sinne into them that are his, euen of nature, and that to death: but Christ maketh them that are his, partakers of his righteousnesse by grace, and that vnto life. ] one man [Note: [m] By sinne, is meant that disease which is ours by inheritance, and men commonly call it originall sinne: for so he vseth to call that sinne in the singular number, whereas if he speake of the fruites of it, he vseth the plurall number calling them sinnes. ] sinne entred into ye world, & death by sinne, and so death went ouer all men: [Note: [n] That is, in Adam. ] in who all men haue sinned.
13 [Note:  That this is so, that both guiltines and death began not after the giuing and transgressing of Moses Lawe, it appeareth manifestly by that, that men died before that Lawe was giuen: for in that they died, sinne, which is the cause of death, was then: and in such sort, that it was also imputed: whereupon it followeth that there was then some Law, the breach whereof was the cause of death. ] For vnto the [Note: [o] Euen from Adam to Moses. ] time of the Law was sinne in the worlde, but sinne is not [Note: [p] Where there is no Law made, no man is punished as faultie and guiltie. ] imputed, while there is no lawe.
14 [Note:  But that this Law was not that vniuersall Lawe, and that that death did not proceede from any actuall sinne of euery one particularly, it appeareth hereby, that the very infants which neither could euer know nor transgresse that naturall Lawe, are notwithstanding dead as well as Adam. ] But death reigned from Adam to Moses, euen ouer [Note: [q] Ouer infants. ] them also that sinned not after the like [Note: [r] Not after that sort as they sinne that are of moe yeeres, following their lustes: but yet the whole posteritie was corrupted in Adam, when as he wittingly and willingly sinned. ] maner of yt transgression of Adam, [Note:  Now that first Adam answereth the latter, who is Christ, as it is afterward declared. ] which was the figure of him that was to come.
15 [Note:  Adam & Christ are compared together in this respect, that both of them doe giue and yeelde to theirs, that which is their owne: but herein first they differ, that Adam by nature hath spred his fault to the destruction of many, but Christs obedience hath by grace ouerflowed many. ] But yet the gift is not so, as is the offence: for if through the offence of [Note: [s] That is, Adam. ] that one, many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man Iesus Christ, hath abounded vnto many.
16 [Note:  An other inequalitie consisteth in this, that by Adams one offence men are made guiltie, but the righteousnesse of Christ imputed vnto vs freely, doeth not onely absolue vs from that one fault, but from all other. ] Neither is the gift so, as that which entred
[Dead to sinne.]
by one that sinned: for the fault came of one offence vnto condemnation: but the gift is of many offences to [Note: [t] To the sentence of absolutio, whereby we are quit and pronounced righteous. ] iustification.
1 He commeth to sanctification, without which, that no man putteth on Christs righteousnes, he proueth 4 by an argument taken of Baptisme, 12 and thereupon exhorteth to holinesse of life, 16 briefly making mention of the Law transgressed.
1 What [Note:  He passeth now to another benefite of Christ, which is called sanctification or regeneratio. ] shall we say then? Shall we continue still in [Note: [a] In that corruption, for though the guiltinesse of sinne be not imputed to vs, yet the corruption remaineth still in vs: the which, Sanctification that followeth Iustification, killeth by litle and litle. ] sinne, that grace may abounde? God forbid.
2 [Note:  The benefite of Iustification and Sanctification, are alwayes ioyned together inseperably, and both of them proceede from Christ by the grace of God: Nowe, Sanctification is the abolishing of sinne, that is, of our naturall corruption, into whose place succeedeth the cleannes and purenes of nature reformed. ] Howe shall we, that are [Note: [b] They are said of Paul to be dead to sinne, which are in such sort made partakers of the vertue of Christ, that that natural corruption is dead in them, that is, the force of it is put out, and it bringeth not forth his bitter fruites: And on the other side, they are saide to liue to sinne, which are in the flesh, that is, whom the spirite of God hath not deliuered from the slauerie of the corruption of nature. ] dead to sinne, liue yet therein?
3 [Note:  There are three partes of this Sanctification: to wit, the death of the olde man or sinne, his buriall, and the resurrection of the newe man, descending into vs from the vertue of the death, buriall, and resurrection of Christ, of which benefite our baptisme is the signe and pledge. ] Knowe ye not, that [Note: Gal.3.27. ] all we which haue bene baptized into [Note: [c] To the ende that growing vp in one with him, we should receiue his strength, to quench sinne in vs, and to make vs newe men. ] Iesus Christ, haue bene baptized into his death?
4 [Note: Col.2. 12. ] We are buried then with him by baptisme into his death, that like as Christ was raysed vp from the dead [Note: [d] That Christ himselfe being discharged of his infirmitie and weakeneße, might liue in glorie with God for euer. ] to the glorie of the Father, so [Note: [e] And we which are his members rise for this end, that being made partakers of the selfesame vertue, we should begin to leade a newe life, as though we were already in heauen. ] we also should [Note: Eph.4.23. colos.3.8. hebr.12.1. 1.pet.2.1. ] walke in newnesse of life.
5 [Note:  The death of sinne and the life of righteousnesse, or our ingraffing into Christ and growing vp into one with him, cannot be separated by any meanes, neither in death nor life: whereby it foloweth, that no man is sanctified, which liueth still to sinne, and therefore is no man made partaker of Christ by faith, which repenteth not and turneth not from his wickednesse: for as he saide before, the Lawe is not subuerted but established by faith. ] [Note: 1. Cor. 6.14. 2.tim.2.11. ] For if we be planted with him to the
[We must be holy.]
[Note: [f] In so much as by meanes of the strength which cometh from him to vs, we so die to sinne as he is dead. ] similitude of his death, euen so shall we [Note: [g] For we become euery day more perfite then other: for we shall neuer be perfectly sanctified, as long as we liue here. ] be to the similitude of his resurrection,
6 Knowing this, yt our [Note: [h] All our whole nature, as we are conceiued & borne into this world with sinne, which is called old, partly by coparing that old Adam with Christ, & partly also in respect of the deformation of our corrupt nature, which we change with anewe. ] old man is crucified with [Note: [i] Our corrupt nature is attributed to Christ, not in deede, but by imputation. ] him, yt the [Note: [k] That naughtines which sticketh fast in vs. ] body of sinne might be destroied, that henceforth we should not [Note: [l] The end of sanctification which wee shoote at, and shall at length come to, to wit, when God shalbe all in all. ] serue sinne.
7 [Note:  He prooueth it by the effectes of death, vsing a comparison of Christ the head with his members. ] For he that is dead, is freed from sinne.
8 Wherefore, if we bee dead with Christ, we beleeue that we shall liue also with him,
9 Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead, dieth no more: death hath no more dominion ouer him.
10 For in that hee died, hee died [Note: [m] Once for all. ] once to sinne but in that he liueth, he liueth to [Note: [n] With God. ] God.
11 Likewise thinke ye also, that ye are dead to sin, but are aliue to God in Iesus Christ our Lord.
12 [Note:  An exhortation to contende and striue with corruption and al the effects thereof. ] Let not sinne [Note: [o] By reigning, S. Paul meaneth that chiefetie and high rule, which no man striueth against, & if any do, yet it is in vaine. ] reigne therefore in your mortal body, yt ye should obey it in ye lusts therof:
13 Neither [Note: [p] To sinne, as to a Lord or tyrant. ] giue ye your [Note: [q] Your minde and all the powers of it. ] members, as [Note: [r] As instruments to commit wickednes withall. ] weapons of vnrighteousnes vnto sinne: but giue your selues vnto God, as they that are aliue from the dead, and giue your members as weapons of righteousnesse vnto God.
14 [Note:  He graunteth, that sinne is not yet so dead in vs that it is vtterly extinct: but he promiseth victorie to them yt contend manfully, because we haue the grace of God giuen vs which worketh so, that ye Law is not now in vs the power & instrument of sin. ] For sinne shall not haue dominion ouer you: for ye are not vnder ye Lawe, but vnder grace.
15 [Note:  To be vnder the Law & vnder sin, signifie al one, in respect of them which are not sanctified, as on the contrary side, to be vnder grace & righteousnes, agree to them that are regenerate: Now these are contraries, so that one can not agree wt the other: Therefore let righteousnes expel sin. ] What then? shall we sinne, because we are not vnder the Law, but vnder grace? God forbid.
16 [Note: Iohn 8.34. 2.pet.2.19. ] Knowe ye not, that to whomsoeuer yee giue your selues as seruats to obey, his seruants ye are to whom ye obey, whether it be of sinne vnto death, or of obedience vnto righteousnesse?
17 [Note:  By nature we are slaues to sin & free from righteousnes, but by the grace of God we are made seruants to righteousnes, and therefore free from sin. ] But God be thanked, that ye haue beene the seruants of sinne, but yee haue obeyed from the heart vnto the [Note: [s] This kinde of speach hath a force in it: for he meaneth thereby that the doctrine of the Gospel is like vnto a certaine moulde which we are cast into, to be framed & fashioned like vnto it. ] forme of the doctrine, wherunto ye were deliuered.
18 Being then made free from sinne, yee are made the seruants of righteousnesse.
19 I speake after the maner of man, because of the infirmitie of your flesh: for as yee haue giuen your members seruants to vncleannes and to iniquitie, to commit iniquitie, so now giue your mebers seruants vnto righteousnesse in holinesse.
20 For when ye were the seruants of sinne, ye were [Note: [t] Righteousnesse had no rule ouer you. ] freed from righteousnesse.
21 [Note:  An exhortation to the studie of righteousnes & hatred of sin, the contrary ends of both, being set downe before vs. ] What fruit had ye then in those things, whereof ye are nowe ashamed? For the [Note: [u] The reward or paiment. ] ende of those things is death.
22 But now being freed from sinne, and made seruants vnto God, ye haue your fruit in holines, and the end, euerlasting life.
23 [Note:  Death is the punishment due to sinne, but we are sanctified freely, vnto life euerlasting. ] For the wages of sinne is death: but the gift of God is eternall life, through Iesus Christ our Lord.
1 He declareth what it is, to be no more vnder the Law, 2 by an example taken of the Lawe of mariage: 7 12 And least the Lawe should seeme faultie, 14 hee prooueth, that our sinne is the cause, 13 that the same is an occasion of death, 17 which was giuen vs, vnto life: 21 Hee setteth out the battaile betweene the flesh and the spirit.
[The vse of the Lawe.]
1 Knowe [Note:  By propounding the similitude of mariage, he copareth the state of man both before & after regeneration together. The lawe of matrimonie, saith he, is this, that so long as the husbad liueth, the mariage abideth in force, but if he be dead, ye woman may marry againe. ] yee not, brethren, (for I speake to them that knowe the Lawe) that the Lawe hath dominion ouer a man as long as he liueth?
2 [Note: 1.Cor. 7.39. ] For the woman which is in subiection to a man, is bound by the Lawe to the man, while he liueth: but if the man bee dead, shee is deliuered from the lawe of the man.
3 So then, if while the man liueth, she taketh another man, she shalbe [Note: [a] That is, shee shal be an adulteresse, by ye consent & iudgement of all men. ] called an [Note: Mat.5.32. ] adulteresse: but if the man be dead, she is free fro the Law, so that shee is not an adulteresse, though shee take another man.
4 [Note:  An application of the similitude thus. So, sayeth he doeth it fare with vs: for now we are ioyned to the spirite, as it were to the second husband, by whom we must bring foorth newe children: we are dead in respect of the first husbad, but in respect of the latter, we are as it were raised from the dead. ] So yee, my brethren, are dead also to the Law by ye [Note: [b] That is, in the bodie of Christ, to giue vs to vnderstand, how straight and neere that fellowship is betwixt Christ & his mebers ] body of Christ, yt ye should be vnto an other, euen vnto him yt is raised vp from the dead, that we should bring foorth [Note: [c] Hee calleth the children, which the wife hath by her husband, fruite. ] fruite vnto [Note: [d] Which are acceptable to God. ] God.
5 [Note:  A declaration of the former saying: for the concupiscences (saith he) which the Law stirred vp in vs, were in vs as it were a husband, of who we brought forth very deadly & cursed children: But now since that husband is dead, & so consequently being deliuered from the force of that killing Law, we haue passed into the gouernance of the Spirit, so that we bring forth nowe, not those rotten & dead, but liuely children. ] For when we [Note: [e] When we were in the state of the first mariage, which hee calleth in the next verse folowing, the oldnesse of the letter. ] were in ye flesh, the [Note: [f] The motions that egged vs to sinne, which shewe their force, euen in our mindes. ] affections of sinnes, which were by the [Note: [g] He saith not, of the Law, but by the Lawe, because they spring of sin which dwelleth within vs, & take occasion to worke thus in vs, by reason of the restraint yt the Law maketh, not that the fault is in the Law, but in our selues. ] Law, had [Note: [h] Wrought their strength. ] force in our members, to bring foorth fruit vnto death.
6 But now we are deliuered from the Lawe, he [Note: [i] As if he saide, The bond which bound vs, is dead, & vanished away, in so much that sinne which held vs, hath not now wherewith to hold vs. ] being dead [Note: [k] For this husband is within vs. ] in whom we were [Note: [l] Satan is an vniust possessour, for he brought vs in bondage of sin & himself, deceitfully: and yet notwithstanding so long as we are sinners, we sin willingly. ] holden, that we should serue in [Note: [m] As becometh them, which after the death of their old husbad are ioyned to the Spirit: as who the spirit of God hath made new men. ] newnesse of Spirite, and not in the oldnesse of the [Note: [n] By the letter, he meaneth the Law, in respect of that old condition: for before that our will be framed by the holy Ghost, the Lawe speaketh but to deafe men, and therefore it is dombe & dead to vs, as touching the fulfilling of it. ] letter.
7 [Note:  An obiection: What then? are the Law & sin al one, & do they agree together? nay saith he: Sin is reproued and condemned by the Lawe. But because sinne cannot abide to be reprooued, & was not in a maner felt vntil it was prouoked & stirred vp by the Law, it taketh occasion thereby to be more outragious, and yet by no fault of the Lawe. ] What shall we say then? Is the Lawe sinne? God forbid. Nay, I knewe not sinne, but by the Lawe: for I had not knowen [Note: [o] By the word, Lust, in this place he meaneth not euil lusts themselues, but the foutaine from whence they spring: for the very heathen philosophers themselues condemned wicked lusts, though somewhat darkely, but as for this fountaine of them, they could not so much as suspect it, & yet it is the very seat of that natural & vncleane spot & filth. ] lust, except the Lawe had sayd, [Note: Exo.20.17. deu. 5.21. ] Thou shalt not lust.
8 But sinne tooke an occasion by ye commandement, and wrought in me all maner of concupiscence: for without the Lawe sinne is [Note: [p] Though sinne be in vs, yet it is not knowen for sin, neither doth it so rage, as it rageth after yt the Law is knowen. ] dead.
9 [Note:  He setteth himselfe before vs for an example, in whome all men may beholde, first what they are of nature before they earnestly thinke vpon the Law of God: to wit, blockish, & heady to sin, & wickednes, wtout all true sense & feeling of sin, then what maner of persons they become, when their coscience is reproued by the testimonie of the Law, to wit, stubberne and more enflamed wt the desire of sin, then euer they were before. ] For I once was aliue, wtout the [Note: [q] When I knew not the Law, then me thought I liued in deede: for my conscience neuer troubled me, because it knew not my disease. ] Law: but when the commandement [Note: [r] When I began to vnderstand the commandement. ] came, sinne reuiued,
10 But I [Note: [s] In sin, or by sin. ] died: and the same commandement which was ordeined vnto life, was found to be vnto me vnto death.
11 For sinne tooke occasion by the commandement, and deceiued me, and thereby slewe me.
12 [Note:  The conclusion: That the Law of it selfe is holy, but al the fault is in vs which abuse the Lawe. ] Wherefore the Lawe is [Note: 1.Tim.1.8. ] holy, and that [Note: [t] Touching not coueting. ] commandement is holy, and iust, and good.
13 [Note:  The proposition: That the Lawe is not the cause of death, but our corrupt nature, being therewith not onely discouered, but also stirred vp: and tooke occasion thereby to rebell, as which, the more that things are forbidden it, the more it desireth them, & from hence commeth guiltines, and occasion of death. ] Was yt then which is good, [Note: [u] Beareth it the blame of my death? ] made death vnto me? God forbid: but sinne, yt it might [Note: [x] That sinne might shewe it selfe to be sinne, and bewray it selfe to bee that, which it is in deede. ] appeare sinne, wrought death in me by that which is good, that sinne might be [Note: [y] As euill as it could, shewing all the venime it coulde. ] out of measure sinfull by the commandement.
14 [Note:  The cause of this matter, is this; Because yt the Law requireth a heauely purenesse, but men, such as they be borne, are bod-slaues of corruption, which they willingly serue. ] For we knowe that the Law is spirituall, but I am carnall, solde vnder sinne.
15 [Note:  Hee setteth himselfe, being regenerate, before vs, for an example, in whome may easily appeare the strife of the Spirite and the flesh, and therefore of the Lawe of God, and our wickednesse. For since that the Lawe in a man not regenerate bringeth foorth death onely, therefore in him, it may easely be accused: but seeing that in a man which is regenerate, it bringeth foorth good fruit, it doeth better appeare that euill actions proceede not from the Lawe, but from sinne, that is, from our corrupt nature: And therefore the Apostle teacheth also, what the true vse of the Lawe is, in reproouing sinne in the regenerate, vnto the ende of the chapter: as a litle before (to wit, from the seuenth verse vnto this fifteenth) he declared the vse of it in them which are not regenerate. ] For I [Note:  The deedes of my life, saith he, answere not, nay they are contrary to my will: Therefore by the consent of my will with the Law, and repugnancie with the deedes of my life, it appeareth euidently, that the Lawe and a right ruled will doe perswade one thing, but corruption which hath her seat also in the regenerate, an other thing. ] alow not yt which I do: for what I [Note:  It is to be noted, that one selfe same man is said to will and not to wil, in diuers respects: to wit, he is said to wil, in that, that he is regenerate by grace: and not to wil, in that, that he is not regenerate, or in that, that he is such an one as he was borne. But because the part which is regenerate, at length becommeth conquerour, therefore Paul susteining the part of ye regenerate, speaketh in such sort as if ye corruption which sinneth willingly, were something without a man: although afterward he graunteth that this euill is in his flesh, or in his members. ] would, that do I not: but what I hate, yt do I.
16 If I doe then that which I woulde not, I consent to the Lawe, that it is good.
17 Nowe then, it is no more I, that doe it, but [Note: [z] That naturall corruption, which cleaueth fast euen to them that are regenerate, and not cleane conquered. ] sinne that dwelleth in me.
18 [Note:  This vice, or sinne, or lawe of sinne, doth wholy possesse those men which are not regenerate, and hindreth them or holdeth them backe that are regenerate. ] For I know, yt in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing: for to wil is preset wt me: but I find [Note: [a] This doeth in deede agree to that man, whome the grace of God hath made a newe man: for where the Spirite is not, howe can there be any strife there? ] no meanes to perform yt which is good.
19 For I doe not the good thing, which I would, but the euil, which I would not, that do I.
20 Nowe if I do yt I would not, it is no more I that doe it, but the sinne that dwelleth in me.
21 [Note:  The conclusion: As the Law of God exhorteth to goodnes, so doth the Law of sinne (that is, the corruption wherein we are borne) force vs to wickednes: but the Spirite, that is, our minde, in that that it is regenerate, consenteth with the Lawe of God: but the flesh, that is, the whole naturall man, is bondslaue to the Lawe of sinne. Therefore to be short, wickednesse and death are not of the Lawe, but of sinne, which reigneth in them that are not regenerate: for they neither will, nor doe good, but will, and doe euill: But in them that are regenerate, it striueth against the Spirite or lawe of the minde, so that they can not either liue so well as they would, or be so voide of sinne as they woulde. ] I finde then yt when I would doe good, I am thus yoked, that euill is present with me.
22 For I delite in the Law of God, concerning the [Note: [b] The inner man, and the newe man are all one, and are answerable and set as contrary to the olde man: neither doth this woorde, Inner man, signifie mans minde and reason, and the old man, the powers that are vnder them, as the Philosophers imagine, but by the outwarde man is meant whatsoeuer is either without or within a man, from toppe to toe, so long as that man is not borne anewe by the grace of God. ] inner man:
23 But I see another Law in my members, rebelling against the Lawe of my [Note: [c] The Lawe of the minde in this place, is not to be vnderstoode of the minde as it is naturally, and as our minde is from our birth, but of the minde which is renewed by the Spirite of God. ] minde, and leading me captiue vnto the lawe of sinne, which is in my members.
24 [Note:  It is a miserable thing to bee yet in part subiect to sinne, which of it owne nature maketh vs guiltie of death: but we must crie to the Lord, who wil by death it selfe at length make vs conquerours, as wee are alreadie conquerours in Christ. ] O [Note: [d] Wearied with miserable and continuall conflictes. ] wretched man that I am, who shall deliuer me from the body of this death!
25 I [Note: [e] He recouereth himselfe, and sheweth vs that he resteth onely in Christ. ] thanke God through Iesus Christ our Lorde. Then I [Note: [f] This is the true perfection of them that are borne anewe, to confesse that they are imperfite. ] my selfe in my minde serue the Lawe of God, but in my flesh the lawe of sinne.
[The flesh and the Spirit.]
1 Hee concludeth that there is no condemnation to them, who are grafted in Christ through his Spirite, 3 howsoeuer they be as yet burdened with sinnes: 9 for they liue through that Spirit, 14 whose testimonie 15 driueth away all feare, 28 and relieueth our present miseries.
1 Now [Note:  A conclusion of al ye former disputation, fro vers.16. of chap.1. euen to this place: Seeing yt we, being iustified by faith in Christ, do obtein remissio of sins & imputation of righteousnes, & are also sanctified, it followeth hereof, yt they that are graffed into Christ by faith, are out of all feare of condemnation. ] then there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Iesus, which [Note:  The fruits of the Spirit, or effects of sanctificatio which is begun in vs, doe not ingraft vs into Christ, but doe declare that we are graffed into him. ] walke not after the [Note: [a] Followe not the flesh for their guide for he is not said to liue after the flesh, that hath the holy Ghost for his guide, though sometimes be step awry. ] flesh, but after the Spirit.
2 [Note:  A preuenting of an obiection: Seeing that the vertue of the Spirit which is in vs, is so weake, how may we gather therby, yt there is no condenation to them yt haue that vertue? Because, saith he, that vertue of ye quickening Spirit which is so weak in vs, is most perfect & most mighty in Christ, & being imputed vnto vs which beleeue, causeth vs to be so accopted of, as though there were no reliques of corruption & death in vs. Therfore hitherto, Paul disputed of remissio of sins, & imputation of fulfilling ye Law, & also of sanctification which is begun in vs: but now he speaketh of ye perfit imputation of Christs mahode, which part was necessarily required to the ful appeasing of our consciences: For our sins are defaced by the blood of Christ, & the guiltines of our corruptio is couered wt the imputation of Christs obedience: and the corruption it self (which ye Apostle calleth sinfull sin) is healed in vs by litle & litle, by the gift of sanctification, but yet lacketh besides that, an other remedy, to wit, the perfect sanctification of Christs owne flesh, which also is to vs imputed. ] For the [Note: [b] The power & authority of the Spirit, against which, is set the tyranny of sin. ] Lawe of the Spirite of [Note: [c] Which mortifieth the old man, & quickeneth the new man. ] life, which is in [Note: [d] To wit, absolutely & perfitly. ] Christ Iesus, hath [Note: [e] For Christes sanctificatio being imputed to vs, perfiteth our sanctification which is begun in vs. ] freed mee from the lawe of sinne and of death.
3 [Note:  He vseth no argument here, but expoudeth the mysterie of sanctificatio, which is imputed vnto vs: for because saith he, yt the vertue of the Law was not such (& that by reason of the corruption of our nature) yt it could make man pure & perfit, & for that it rather kindled the disease of sin, then did put it out & extinguish it, therfore God clothed his Sonne wt flesh like vnto our sinful flesh, wherein he vtterly abolished our corruption, that being accompted throughly pure and wtout fault in him apprehended & laid hold on by faith, we might be found to haue fully that singular perfection which the Law requireth, & therfore that there might be no condenation in vs. ] For (that yt was [Note: [f] Which is not proper to the Law, but cometh by our fault. ] impossible to ye Lawe, in as much as it was weake, because of ye [Note: [g] In man not borne anew, whose disease the Law could point out, but it could not heale it. ] flesh) God sending his owne Sonne, in ye similitude of [Note: [h] Of mans nature which was corrupt through sin vntil he sanctified it. ] sinful flesh, & for [Note: [i] To abolish sin in our flesh. ] sinne, [Note: [k] Shewed that sin hath no right in vs. ] condened sinne in the flesh,
4 That that [Note: [l] The very substance of the Lawe of God might be fulfilled, or that same which the lawe requireth, that we may be foud iust before God: for if with our iustification, there be ioyned that sanctificatio which is imputed to vs, we are iust, according to that perfit forme which ye Lord requireth. ] righteousnes of the Law might be fulfilled [Note:  He returneth to yt which he said, that the sanctification which is begun in vs, is a sure testimonie of our ingraffing into Christ: which is a most plentiful fruit of a godly & honest life. ] in vs, which walke not after ye flesh, but after the Spirit.
5 [Note:  A reason, why to walke after the flesh, agreeth not to them which are grafted in Christ, but to walke after the Spirite, agreeth & is meete for them: Because saith he, that they which are after ye flesh, sauour the things of the flesh, but they yt are after the Spirit, ye things of the Spirit. ] For they that are after the [Note: [m] They that liue as the flesh leadeth them. ] flesh, sauour the things of the flesh: but they that are after the Spirit, the things of the Spirit.
6 [Note:  He proueth the cosequent: because yt whatsoeuer the flesh sauoureth, that engedreth death: and whatsoeuer the Spirit sauoureth, that tendeth to ioy and life euerlasting. ] For the wisedome of the flesh is death: but the wisedome of the Spirit is life and peace,
7 [Note:  A reason & proofe, why the wisedome of the flesh is death, because sayeth hee, it is the enemie of God. ] Because the wisedome of the flesh is enimitie against God: [Note:  A reason why the wisedome of the flesh is enemie to God, because it neither will, neither can be subiect to him. And by flesh he meaneth a man not regenerate. ] for it is not subiect to the Lawe of God, neither in deede can be.
8 [Note:  The conclusion: Therefore they that walke after the flesh, canot please God: whereby it followeth, that they are not graffed into Christ. ] So then they that are in the flesh, can not please God.
9 [Note:  He commeth to the others, to wit, to them which walke after the Spirite, of whome we haue to vnderstande contrary thinges to the former: and first of all he defineth what it is to be in the Spirite, or to be sanctified: to wit, to haue the Spirite of God dwelling in vs: Then hee declareth, that sanctification is so ioyned and knit to our graffing in Christ, that it can by no meanes be separated. ] Now ye are not in the flesh, but in ye Spirit, because ye spirit of God dwelleth in you: but if any man hath not ye Spirit of Christ, ye same is not his.
[The Spirit of adoption.]
10 [Note:  He confirmeth the faithful against the reliques of flesh and sinne, granting that they are yet (as it appeareth by the corruption which is in them) touching one of their parts (which he calleth the body, that is to say, a lumpe) which is not yet purged from this earthly filthines, in death: but there withall willing them to doubt nothing of the happy successe of this combate, because that euen this litle sparke of the Spirit, (that is, of the grace of regeneration) which appeareth to be in them by the fruits of righteousnes, is the seede of life. ] And if Christ bee in you, the [Note: [n] The flesh, or all that, which as yet sticketh fast in the cleftes of sinne, and death. ] body is dead, because of sinne: but the Spirite is life for righteousnesse sake.
11 [Note:  A confirmation of the former sentence: You haue the selfe same Spirit, which Christ hath: Therefore at length it shall doe the same in you, that it did in Christ, to wit, whe al infirmities being vtterly laid aside, & death ouercome, it shall clothe you with heauenly glory. ] But if the Spirit of him that raised vp Iesus from the dead, dwell in you, he that raised vp Christ from the dead, shall also quicken your mortall bodies, by his Spirit that [Note: [o] By the vertue and power of it, which shewed the same might first in our head, and dayly worketh in his members. ] dwelleth in you.
12 [Note:  An exhortation to oppresse the flesh dayly more & more by the vertue of the Spirit of regeneration, because (saith he) you are detters vnto God, for so much as you haue receiued so many benefits of him. ] Therefore brethren, wee are detters not to the flesh, to liue after the flesh:
13 [Note:  An other reason of the profit that ensueth: for such as striue and fight valiantly, shall haue euerlasting life. ] For if ye liue after the flesh, ye shall die: but if yee mortifie the deedes of the body by the Spirit, ye shall liue.
14 [Note:  A cofirmation of this reason: for they be ye childre of God, which are gouerned by his Spirit, therfore shall they haue life euerlasting. ] For as many as are ledde by the Spirit of God, they are the sonnes of God.
15 [Note:  He declareth & expoundeth by the way, in these two verses, by what right this name, to be called the children of God is giue to the beleeuers: because saith he, they haue receiued the grace of the Gospel, wherein God sheweth himselfe, not (as before in the publishing of the Law) terrible & feareful, but a most benigne and louing father in Christ, so that with great boldnes we call him Father, the holy Ghost sealing this adoptio in our hearts by faith. ] For ye haue not receiued the [Note: [p] By the Spirit, is ment the holy Ghost, whom we are said to receiue, when he worketh in our minds. ] Spirit of bodage, to [Note: [q] Which feare, it stirred vp in our mindes, by the preaching of the Law. ] feare againe: but ye haue receiued the Spirit of [Note: [r] Which sealeth our adoption in our minds, & therefore openeth our mouthes. ] adoption, whereby we cry Abba, Father.
16 The same Spirit beareth witnesse with our spirit, that we are the children of God.
17 [Note:  A proofe of the consequent of the cofirmation: because that he which is ye sonne of God, doth enioy God with Christ. ] If we be children, we are also [Note: [s] Partakers of our fathers goods, & that freely, because we are children by adoption. ] heires, euen the heires of God, and heires annexed with Christ: [Note:  Now Paul teacheth by what way the sonnes of God do come to that felicitie, to wit, by the crosse, as Christ himselfe did: and therewithal openeth vnto them fountaines of comfort: as first, that we haue Christ a companion & fellow of our afflictions: secondly, that we shalbe also his felowes in that euerlasting glory. ] if so be that we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him.
18 [Note:  Thirdly, that this glory which we looke for, doth a thousand parts surmout the misery of our afflictios. ] For I [Note: [t] Al being wel cosidered, I gather. ] count that the afflictions of this present time are not worthy of the glory, which shalbe shewed vnto vs.
19 [Note:  Fourthly, he plainly teacheth vs that we shal certainly be renued from that confusion & horrible deformation of the whole world, which cannot be continual, as it was not at the beginning: But as it had a beginning by the sinne of man, for whom it was made by the ordinance of God, so shall it at length be restored with the elect. ] For the feruent desire of the [Note: [u] All this world. ] creature waiteth when the sonnes of God shalbe reueiled,
20 Because the creature is subiect to [Note: [x] Is subiect to a vanishing and flitting state. ] vanitie, not of it [Note: [y] Not by their naturall inclination. ] owne will, but by reason [Note: [z] That they should obey the Creators commandement, whom it pleased to shew by their sickle state, how greatly he was displeased with man. ] of him, which hath subdued it vnder [Note: [a] God would not make the worlde subiect to euerlasting curse, for the sinne of man, but gaue it hope that it should be restored. ] hope,
21 Because the creature also shall be deliuered from the [Note: [b] From the corruption which they are now subiect to, they shalbe deliuered and changed into that bleßed state of incorruption, which shall be reuealed when the sonnes of God shalbe aduanced to glory. ] bondage of corruption into the glorious libertie of the sonnes of God.
22 For we knowe that euery creature groneth with vs also, and [Note: [c] By this word is ment, not onely exceeding sorow, but also the fruite that followeth of it. ] trauaileth in paine together vnto this present.
23 [Note:  Fiftly, if the rest of the world looke for a restoring, groning as it were for it, & that not in vaine, let it not grieue vs also to sigh, yea, let vs be more certainly perswaded of our redemption to come, for as much as we haue the first fruites of the Spirit. ] And not onely the creature, but we also which haue the first fruites of the Spirit, euen we
[Saued by hope.]
doe sigh in our [Note: [d] Euen from the bottome of our heartes. ] selues, waiting for the adoption, euen the [Note: Luke 21.28. ] [Note: [e] That last restoring, which shalbe the accomplishment of our adoptio. ] redemption of our body.
24 [Note:  Sixtly, hope is necessarily ioyned with faith: seeing then that we beleeue those things, which we are not yet in possession of, and hope respecteth not the thing that is present, we must therfore hope and paciently waite for that which we beleeue shall come to passe. ] For we are saued by hope: but [Note: [f] This is spoken by the figure Metonymie: Hope, for that which is hoped for. ] hope that is seene, is not hope: for how can a man hope for that which he seeth?
25 But if we hope for that we see not, we doe with patience abide for it.
26 [Note:  Seuenthly, There is no cause why we shoulde faint vnder the burden of afflictions, seeing that prayers minister vnto vs a most sure helpe: which can not be frustrate, seeing they proceede from the spirit of God which dwelleth in vs. ] Likewise the Spirit also [Note: [g] Beareth our burden, as it were, that we faint not vnder it. ] helpeth our infirmities: for we knowe not what to pray as wee ought: but the Spirit it selfe maketh [Note: [h] Prouoketh vs to prayers, and telleth vs as it were within, what we shalt say, and how we shall grone. ] request for vs with sighs, which cannot be expressed.
27 But he that searcheth the heartes, knoweth what is the [Note: [i] What sobs and sighs proceede from the instinct of his Spirit. ] meaning of the Spirit: for he maketh request for ye Saints, [Note: [k] Because he teacheth the godly to pray according to Gods will. ] according to the wil of God.
28 [Note:  Eightly, we are not afflicted, either by chance or to our harme, but by Gods prouidence for our great profit: who as he chose vs from the beginning, so hath he predestinate vs to be made like to the image of his Sonne: and therefore will bring vs in his time, being called and iustified, to glory, by the crosse. ] Also we knowe that [Note: [l] Not onely afflictions, but whatsoeuer els. ] all thinges worke together for the best vnto them that loue God, euen to them that are called of his [Note: [m] He calleth that, Purpose, which God hath from euerlasting appointed with himselfe according to his good wil and pleasure. ] purpose.
29 For those which hee knewe before, he also predestinate to bee made like to the image of his Sonne, that hee might be the first borne among many brethren.
30 Moreouer whom he [Note: [n] He vseth the time past, for the time present, as the Hebrewes vse, who sometime set downe the thing that is to come, by the time that is past, to signifie the certaintie of it: and he hath also a regard to Gods continuall working. ] predestinate, them also he called, & whom he called, them also he iustified, & whom he iustified, them he also glorified.
31 [Note:  Ninthly, we haue no cause to feare that the Lorde will not giue vs whatsoeuer is profitable for vs, seeing that he hath not spared his owne Sonne to saue vs. ] What shall we then say to these thinges? If God be on our side, who can be against vs?
32 Who spared not his owne Sonne, but gaue him for vs all to death, how shall he not with him [Note: [o] Giue vs freely. ] giue vs all things also?
33 [Note:  A most glorious & comfortable conclusion of the whole second part of this Epistle, that is, of the treatise of iustification. There are no accusers that we haue neede to be afraide of before God, seeing that God himselfe absolueth vs as iust: and therefore much lesse neede we to feare damnation, seeing that we rest vpon the death & resurrection, the almightie power and defence of Iesus Christ. Therefore what can there be so waightie in this life, or of so great force and power, that might feare vs, as though we might fall from the loue of God, wherewith he loueth vs in Christ? Surely nothing, seeing that it is in it selfe most constant and sure, and also in vs being confirmed by stedfast faith. ] Who shall lay any thing to the charge of Gods chosen? it is [Note: [p] Who pronouceth vs, not only guiltles, but also perfitly iust in his Sonne. ] God that iustifieth,
34 Who shall condemne? it is Christ which is dead, yea, or rather, which is risen againe, who is also at the right hand of God, and maketh request also for vs.
35 Who shall separate vs from the loue of [Note: [q] Wherewith Christ loueth vs. ] Christ? shall tribulation or anguish, or persecution, or famine, or nakednesse, or perill, or sworde?
36 As it is written, [Note: Psal.44.22. ] For thy sake are we killed all day long: we are counted as sheepe for the slaughter.
37 [Note: [r] We are not onely not ouercome with so great & many miseries & calamities, but also more then conquerours in all of them. ] Neuerthelesse, in all these thinges we are more then coquerours through him that loued vs.
38 For I am perswaded that neither death, nor life, nor Angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come,
39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shalbe able to separate vs from the loue of God, which is in Christ Iesus our Lord.
1 He answereth an obiection, that might be brought on the Iewes behalfe, 7 and telleth of two sorts of Abrahams children, 15 and that God worketh all things in this matter according to his will, 20 euen as the potter doth. 24. 30 He proueth aswell the calling of the Gentiles, 31 as also the reiecting of the Iewes, 25. 27 by the testimonies of the Prophets.
[Christ is very God.]
1 I say [Note:  The third part of this Epistle, euen to the twelfth Chapter, wherein Paul ascendeth to the higher causes of faith: and first of all, because he purposed to speake much of the casting off of the Iewes, he vseth an insinuation, declaring by a double or triple othe, and by witnessing of his great desire towardes their saluation, his singular loue towards them, and therewithall granting vnto them all their prerogatiues. ] the trueth in Christ, I lye not, my conscience bearing mee witnes in the holy Ghost,
2 That I haue great heauinesse, and continuall sorow in mine heart.
3 For I woulde wish my selfe to be [Note: [a] The Apostle loued his brethren so entirely, that if it had bene possible, he would haue bene ready to haue redeemed the casting away of the Israelites, with the loße of his owne soule for euer: for this word, separate, betokeneth as much in this place. ] separate from Christ, for my brethren that are my kinsemen according to the [Note: [b] Being brethren by flesh, as of one nation and countrey. ] flesh,
4 Which are the Israelites, to whome perteineth the adoption, and the [Note: [c] The arke of the couenat, which was a token of Gods presence. ] glory, and the [Note: Chap.2.17. ephe.2.12. ] [Note: [d] The tables of the couenant, and this is spoken by the figure Metonimia. ] Couenants, and the giuing of the [Note: [e] Of the iudiciall Lawe. ] Lawe, and the [Note: [f] The ceremoniall Lawe. ] seruice of God, and the [Note: [g] Which were made to Abraham and to his posteritie. ] promises.
5 Of whome are the fathers, and of whome concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is [Note:  A most manifest testimonie of the Godhead & diuinitie of Christ. ] God ouer all, blessed for euer, Amen.
6 [Note: Chap.2.28. ] [Note:  He entreth into the handling of predestination, by a kind of preuenting an obiection: How may it be, that Israel is cast off, but that therewithal we must also make the couenat which God made with Abraham & his seed, frustrate & voyd? He answereth therfore, that Gods word is true, although that Israel be cast off: for the election of the people of Israel is so generall & common, that notwithstanding the same, God chuseth by his secret counsell, such as it pleaseth him. So then, this is the proposition and state of this treatise: The grace of saluation is offered generally in such sort that notwithstanding it, the efficacie there of perteineth only to the elect. ] Notwithstanding it can not bee that the worde of God should take none effect: for all they are not [Note: [h] Israel in the first place, is taken for Iacob: and in the second, for the Israelites. ] Israel, which are of Israel:
7 Neither are they all children, because they are the seede of Abraham: [Note: Gen 21.12. Heb.11.18. ] [Note:  The first proofe is taken fro the example of Abrahams owne house, wherein Isaac onely was accompted the sonne & that by Gods ordinance: although that Ismael also was borne of Abraham, & circumcised before Isaac. ] but, In [Note: [i] Isaac shalbe thy true, and naturall sonne, & therefore heire of thy bleßing. ] Isaac shall thy seede be called:
8 [Note:  A generall application of the former proofe or example. ] That is, they which are the children of the [Note: [k] Which are borne of Abraham by the course of nature. ] flesh, are not the children of God: but the [Note: Gal.4.28. ] children of the [Note: [l] Which are borne by vertue of the promes. ] promes, are counted for the seede.
9 [Note:  A reason of that application: Because that Isaac was borne by the vertue of the promes, and therfore he was not chosen, nay he was not at al, but by the free wil of God: whereby it foloweth that the promise is the fountaine of predestination, & not the flesh, from which promise the particular election proceedeth: that is, that the elect be borne elect, and not that they be first borne, & then after elected, in respect of God who doth predestinate. ] For this is a worde of promes, [Note: Gene.18.10. ] In this same time wil I come, and Sara shall haue a sonne.
10 [Note:  Another forcible proofe, taken from the example of Esau & Iacob, which were both borne of the same Isaac, which was the sonne of the promes, of one mother, & at one birth, and not at diuers as Ismael and Isaac were: and yet notwithstanding, Esau being cast oft, only Iacob was chosen: and that before their birth, that neither any goodnesse of Iacobs, might bee thought to bee the cause of his election, neither any wickednes of Esaus, of his casting away. ] Neither he onely felt this, but also [Note: Genes. 25.21. ] Rebecca when shee had conceiued by one, euen by our father Isaac.
11 For yer the children were borne, and when they had neither done good, nor euill (that the [Note: [m] Gods decree, which proceedeth of his meere good will, whereby it pleaseth him to chuse one, and refuse the other. ] purpose of God might [Note:  Paul saith not, might be made, but being made might remaine. Therefore they are deceiued which make foreseene saith, the cause of election, and foreknowen infidelitie, the cause of reprobation ] remaine according to election, not by workes, but by him that calleth)
12 [Note:  He prooueth the casting away of Esau by that, that hee was made seruant to his brother: and prooueth the chusing of Iacob, by that, that hee was made Lorde of his brother, although his brother was the first begotten. And least that any man might take this saying of God, and referre it to externall things, the Apostle sheweth out of Malachi, who is a good interpreter of Moses, that the seruitude of Esau was ioyned with the hatred of God, and the lordship of Iacob with the loue of God. ] It was said vnto her, [Note: Gene. 25.23. ] The elder shal serue the yonger.
13 As it is written, [Note: Malach.1.2. ] I haue loued Iacob, and haue hated Esau.
14 [Note:  The first obiection: If God doth loue or hate vpon no cosideration of worthines or vnworthines, then is he vniust, because he may loue them which are vnworthie, and hate them that are worthy. The Apostle detesteth this blasphemie, and afterward answereth it seuerally, point by point. ] What shall wee say then? Is there [Note: [n] Mans wit knoweth no other causes of loue or hatred, but those that are in the persons, and thereupon this obiection riseth. ] vnrighteousnes with God? God forbid.
15 [Note:  He answereth first touching them which are chosen to saluation: in chusing of whom, he denieth that God may seeme vniust, although he chuse & predestinate to saluatio, them that are not yet borne, without any respect of worthines: because he bringeth not the chosen to the appointed ende, but by the meanes of his mercie, which is a cause next vnder predestination. Now mercy presupposeth misery, and againe misery presupposeth sinne or voluntarie corruption of mankinde, and corruption presupposeth a pure and perfect creation. Moreouer mercie is shewed by her degrees: to wit, by calling, by faith, by iustification and sanctification, so that at length we come to glorification, as the Apostle will shewe afterwarde. Nowe all these things orderly following the purpose of God, do clearely proue that he can by no meanes seeme vniust in louing and sauing his. ] For he saith to Moses, [Note: Exod.33.19. ] I wil [Note: [o] I will be mercifull and fauourable to whom I list to be fauourable. ] haue mercy on him, to whom I wil shew mercie: and wil haue [Note: [p] I wil haue compassion on whom soeuer I list to haue compassion. ] compassion on him, on who I wil haue copassion.
16 [Note:  The conclusion of the answere: Therfore God is not vniust in chusing & sauing of his free goodnes, such as it pleaseth him: as he also answered Moses, whe he prayed for al the people. ] So then it is not in him that [Note: [q] By will, he meaneth the thought & endeuour of heart, & by running, good works, to neither of which he giueth the praise, but only to the mercy of God. ] willeth, nor in him that runneth, but in God yt sheweth mercy.
17 [Note:  Nowe he answereth concerning the reprobate, or them whom God hateth being not yet borne, & hath appointed to destruction, wtout any respect of vnworthines. And first of al he proueth this to be true, by alleaging the testimony of God himselfe touching Pharao, whom he stirred vp to this purpose, that he might be glorified in his hardning and iust punishing. ] For the [Note: [r] God so speaketh vnto Pharao in the Scripture, or, the Scripture bringeth in God, so speaking to Pharao. ] Scripture saith vnto Pharao, [Note: Exo.9.16. ] For this same purpose haue I [Note: [s] Brought thee into this world. ] stirred thee vp, that I might [Note:  Secondly, he bringeth the end of Gods cousel, to shew that there is no vnrighteousnes in him. Now this chiefest end is, not properly & simply the destruction of the wicked, but Gods glory which appeareth in their rightful punishment. ] shewe my power in thee, and that my Name might be declared throughout al the earth.
18 [Note:  A conclusion of the ful answer to the first obiection: therefore seeing God doth not saue them whom he freely chose according to his good wil & pleasure, but by iustifying & sanctifying them by his grace, his counsell in sauing them cannot seeme vniust. And againe, there is no vniustice in the euerlasting cousel of God, touching the destruction of them who he listeth to destroy, for that he hardeneth before he destroyeth: Therefore the third answere for the maintenance of Gods iustice in the euerlasting counsell of reprobation, cosisteth in this word, Hardening: which notwithstanding he concealed in the former verse, because the history of Pharao was wel knowen. But the force of the word is great, for Hardening, which is set against Mercy, presupposeth the same things that mercy did, to wit, a volutary corruption, wherein the reprobate are hardened: and againe, corruption presupposeth a perfit state of creation. Moreouer, this hardening also is voluntary, for God so hardeneth being offended with corruption, that he vseth their owne wil who he hardneth, to the executing of that iudgment. Then folow the fruits of Hardening, to wit, vnbeliefe & sinne, which are the true and proper causes of the condemnation of the reprobate. Why doth he then appoint to destruction? because he will: why doth he harden? because they are corrupt: why doth he codemne? because they are sinners. Where is then vnrighteousnes? Nay if he should destroy all after this same sort, to whom should he do iniurie? ] Therefore he hath mercie on whome he [Note: [t] Whom it pleased him to appoint, to shew his fauour vpon. ] will, and whom he will, he hardeneth.
19 [Note:  Another obiection, but only for the reprobate, rising vpon the former answere. If God do appoint to euerlasting destruction, such as he listeth, and if that cannot be hindered nor withstanded, that he hath once decreed, how doth he iustly condemne them, which perish by his will? ] Thou wilt say then vnto me, Why doeth he yet complaine? for who hath resisted his will?
20 [Note:  The Apostle doth not answere that it is not Gods wil, or that God doth not either reiect or elect according to his pleasure, which thing the wicked cal blasphemie, but he rather granteth his aduersarie both the antecedents, to wit, that it is Gods will, and that it must of necessitie so fall out, yet he denieth that God is therefore to be thought an vniust reuenger of the wicked: for seeing it appeareth by manifest proofe that this is the will of God, and his doing, what impudencie is it for man, which is but dust and ashes, to dispute with God, and as it were to call him into iudgement? Nowe if any man say that the doubt is not so dissolued & answered, I answere that there is no surer demonstration in any matter, because it is grounded vpon this principle, That the will of God is the rule of righteousnes. ] But, O man, who art thou which pleadest against God? [Note:  An amplification of the former answere, taken from a comparison, whereby also it appeareth that Gods determinate counsell is set of Paul the highest of all causes: so that it dependeth not vpon any respect of second causes, but doth rather frame and direct them. ] shall the [Note: Esai.45.9. ] thing [Note: [u] This similitude agreeth very fitly in the first creation of mankinde. ] formed say to
[The calling of the Gentiles.]
him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?
21 [Note: Iere.18.6. ] [Note:  Alluding to the creation of Adam, he compareth mankinde not yet made (but in the Creators mind) to a lumpe of clay: whereof afterward God made and doeth dayly make, according as hee purposed from euerlasting, both such as should be elect, and such as should be reprobate, as also this worde, Making, declareth. ] Hath not the potter power of the clay to make of the same lumpe one [Note:  Whereas in the obiection propounded, mention was onely made of vessels to dishonour, yet he speaketh of the other also in this answere, for that he proueth the Creator to be iust in either of them, as the rule of contraries doeth require. ] vessell to [Note: [x] To honest vses. ] honour, and another vnto [Note:  Seeing then, that in the name of dishonour, the ignominie of euerlasting death is signified, they speake with Paul, which say, that some are made of God to most iust destruction: and they that are offended with this kind of speach bewray their owne folly. ] dishonour?
22 [Note:  The second answere is this, that God, moreouer and besides that he doeth iustly decree whatsoeuer he doeth decree, vseth that moderation in executing of his decrees, as declareth his singular lenitie euen in the reprobate, in that, that he suffereth them a long time, and permitteth them to enioy many and singular benefites, vntill at length hee iustly condemne them: and that to good ende and purpose, to wit, to shewe himselfe to be an enemie and reuenger of wickednes, that it may appeare what power he is of by these seuere iudgements, and finally by comparison of contraries to set forth in deede, howe great his mercy is towards the elect. ] What and if God would, to shewe his wrath, and to make his power knowen, suffer with long patience the [Note: [y] By veßels, the Hebrewes vnderstand all kindes of instruments. ] vessels of wrath, prepared to [Note:  Therefore againe, we may say with Paul that some men are made of God the Creator to destruction. ] destruction?
23 And that hee might declare the [Note: [z] The vnmeasurable and marueilous greatnes. ] riches of his glory vpon the vessels of mercy, which hee hath prepared vnto glory?
24 [Note:  Hauing established the doctrine of the eternall predestination of God on both partes: that is, as well of the reprobate, as of the elect, hee commeth now to shew the vse of it, teaching vs that we ought not to seeke the testimonie of it in the secret counsell of God, but by the vocation which is made manifest and set foorth in the Church, propounding vnto vs the example of the Iewes and Gentiles, that the doctrine may be better perceiued. ] Euen vs whome hee hath called, not of of the [Note: [a] He saith not, that all and euery one of the Iewes are called, but some of the Iewes, and some of the Gentiles. ] Iewes onely, but also of the Gentiles,
25 [Note:  Our vocation or calling, is free and of grace, euen as our predestination is: and therefore there is no cause why either our owne vnworthines, or the vnworthines of our auncesters should cause vs to thinke that we are not the elect and chosen of God, if we be called of him, and so embrace through faith the saluation that is offered vs. ] As he sayth also in Osee, [Note: Hose.2.23. 1.pet.2.10. ] I will call them, My people, which were not my people: and her, Beloued, which was not beloued.
26 And it shalbe in the place where it was said vnto them, [Note: Hose.1.10. ] Ye are not my people, that there they shalbe called, The children of the liuing God.
27 [Note:  Contrariwise, Neither any outwarde generall calling, neither any worthines of our auncesters, is a sufficient witnes of election, vnlesse by fayth and beleefe we answere Gods calling: which thing came to passe in the Iewes, as the Lord had forewarned. ] Also Esaias cryeth concerning Israel, [Note: Isai.20.21. ] Though the number of the children of Israel were as the sand of the sea, yet shall but a remnant be saued.
28 For he wil make his account, and gather it into a [Note: [b] God purposeth to bring the vnkinde and vnthankfull people to an extreme fewnes. ] short summe with righteousnes: for the Lord will make a short count in the earth.
29 [Note: Isai.1.9. ] And as Esaias sayde before, Except the Lord of [Note: [c] Armies, by which worde the chiefest power that is, is giuen to God. ] hostes had left vs a [Note: [d] Euen a very fewe. ] seede, we had bene made as Sodom, and had bene like to Gomorrha.
30 [Note:  The declaration and manifestation of our election, is our calling apprehended by fayth, as it came to passe in the Gentiles. ] What shall we say then? That the Gentiles which folowed [Note: [e] So then the Gentiles had no workes to prepare and procure Gods mercie before hand: and as for that, that the Gentiles attained to that which they sought not for, the mercie of God is to be thanked for it: and in that the Iewes attained not to that which they sought after, they can thanke none for it but themselues, because they sought it not aright. ] not righteousnes, haue attained vnto righteousnes, euen the righteousnes which is of faith.
31 [Note:  The pride of men is the cause that they contemne vocation, so that the cause of their damnation neede not to be sought for any other where but in themselues. ] But Israel which followed the Lawe of righteousnes, could not arteine vnto the Law of righteousnes.
32 Wherefore? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the [Note: [f] Seeking to come by righteousneße, they followed the Lawe of righteousneße. ] workes of the Lawe: for they haue stumbled at the stumbling stone,
[An ignorant zeale.]
33 As it is written, [Note: Psal.118.22. isai.8.14. and 28.16. 1.pet.2.6. ] Beholde, I lay in Sion a stumbling stone, and a rocke to make men fall: and euery one that beleeueth in him, shall not be ashamed.
1 He handleth the effectes of election, 3 that some refuse, and some embrace 4 Christ, who is the end of the Law. 15 He sheweth that Moses foretolde the calling of the Gentiles, 20 and Esaias the hardening of the Iewes.
1 Brethren, [Note:  Purposing to set forth in the Iewes an example of marueilous obstinacie, he vseth an insinuation. ] mine hearts desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saued.
2 For I beare them record, that they haue the zeale of God, but not according to knowledge.
3 [Note:  The first entrance into the vocation vnto saluation, is to renounce our owne righteousnes: the next is, to embrace that righteousnes by faith, which God freely offereth vs in the Gospel. ] For they, [Note: [a] The ignorance of the Law which we ought to know, excuseth none before God, especially it excuseth not them that are of his housholde. ] being ignorant of the righteousnes of God, and going about to [Note: [b] Ignorance hath alway pride ioyned with it. ] stablish their owne righteousnes, haue not submitted themselues to the righteousnes of God.
4 [Note: Gala.3.24. ] [Note:  The proofe: The Law it selfe hath respect vnto Christ, that such as beleeue in him should be saued. Therefore the calling to saluation by the workes of the Lawe, is vaine and foolish, but Christ is offered for saluation to euery beleeuer. ] For Christ is the [Note: [c] The ende of the Lawe is to iustifie them that keepe the Lawe: but seeing we doe not obserue the Lawe through the fault of our flesh, we attaine not vnto this ende: but Christ salueth this disease, for hee fulfilled the Law for vs. ] end of the Law for righteousnes vnto [Note: [d] Not only to the Iewes, but also to the Gentiles. ] euery one that beleeueth.
5 [Note:  That the Law regardeth and tendeth to Christ, that is a manifest proofe, for that it propoundeth such a condition, as can be and is fulfilled of none but of Christ onely: which being imputed vnto vs by faith, our conscience is quieted, so that nowe no man can aske, Who can ascend vp into heauen, or bring vs from hell, seeing the Gospel teacheth that both of these is done by Christ, and that for their sakes, which with true faith embrace him which calleth them. ] For Moses thus describeth the righteousnes which is of the Lawe, [Note: Leuit.18.5. ezek.20.11. gala.3.12. ] That the man which doeth these things, shall liue thereby.
6 But the righteousnes which is of faith, speaketh on this wise, [Note: Deut.30.12. ] [Note: [e] Thinke not with thy selfe, as men that are staggering vse to doe. ] Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heauen? (that is to bring Christ from aboue)
7 Or, Who shal descend into the deepe? (that is to bring Christ againe from the dead)
8 [Note:  Vocation commeth by the worde preached. ] But what sayth it? [Note: Deu.30.14. ] The [Note: [f] By the worde, Moses vnderstoode the Lawe which the Lorde published with his owne voyce: and Paul applied it to the preaching of the Gospel which was the perfection of the Lawe. ] worde is neere thee, euen in thy mouth, and in thine heart. This is the worde of faith which we preach.
9 [Note:  That is in deede true fayth which is setled not only in the head, but also in the heart of man, whereof also we giue testimonie, by our outward life, and which tendeth to Christ as to our alone and onely Sauiour, euen as he setteth forth himselfe in his worde. ] For if thou shalt [Note: [g] If thou profeße plainly, sincerely, and openly, that thou takest Iesus only to be thy Lord and Sauiour. ] confesse with thy mouth the Lord Iesus, and shalt beleeue in thine heart, that [Note: [h] The Father, who is sayd to haue raised the Sonne from the dead: and this is not spoken to shut out the diuinitie of the Sonne, but to set forth the Fathers counsell touching our redemption in the resurrection of the Sonne. ] God raised him vp from the dead, thou shalt be saued:
10 For with the heart man [Note: [i] Faith is said to iustifie, and furthermore seeing the confession of the mouth is an effect of faith, and confession is the way to come to saluation, it followeth that faith is also said to saue. ] beleeueth vnto righteousnes, and with the mouth man confesseth to saluation.
11 [Note:  Now he prooueth the other part which he propounded afore in the fourth verse, to wit, that Christ calleth whomsoeuer he listeth without any difference, and this he confirmeth by a double testimonie. ] For the Scripture saith, [Note: Isai.28.16. ] Whosoeuer [Note: [k] To beleeue in God is to yeelde and consent to God his promise of our saluation by Christ, and that not onely in generall, but when we know that the promises perteine to vs, whereupon riseth a sure trust. ] beleeueth in him, shall not be ashamed.
12 For there is no difference betweene the Iewe and the Grecian: for he that is Lorde ouer all, is rich vnto all, that call on him.
13 [Note: Ioel 1.38. ] [Note:  True calling vpon the Name of God is the testimonie of true faith, & true faith, of true vocation or calling, and calling, of true election. ] For whosoeuer shall call vpon the Name of the Lord, shalbe saued.
[Whereof faith commeth.]
14 But how shall they call on him, in whome they haue not beleeued? [Note:  That is true faith, which seeketh God in his worde, and that preached: according as God hath appointed in the Church. ] and how shall they beleeue in him, of whom they haue not heard? and howe shall they heare without a preacher?
15 And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, [Note: Isai.52.7. nahum.1.15. ] Howe beautifull are the feete of them which bring glad tidings of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!
16 [Note:  Wheresoeuer fayth is, there is also the worde, but not contrariwise, wheresoeuer the worde is, there is faith also: for many refuse and reiect the worde. ] But they haue not [Note: [l] He speaketh this because of the Iewes. ] all obeyed ye Gospel: for Esaias saith, [Note: Isai.53.1. iohn 12.38. ] Lord, who hath beleeued our report?
17 [Note:  A conclusion of the former gradation: we must ascend from faith, to our vocation, as by our vocation we came to the testimonie of our election. ] Then faith is by hearing, and hearing by the [Note: [m] By Gods commaundement. ] worde of God.
18 [Note:  An obiection: If calling be a testimonie of election, were not the Iewes called? why should I not graunt that, sayth the Apostle, seeing that there is no nation which hath not bene called? much lesse can I say, that the Iewes were not called. ] But I demaund, Haue they not heard? [Note: Psal.19.3. ] No doubt their sound went out through all the earth, and their wordes into the endes of the worlde.
19 [Note:  The defendour and mainteiner of the Iewes cause, goeth on still to aske, whether the Iewes also knewe not God which called them. Esaie (sayth the Apostle) denieth it: and witnesseth that the Gospel was translated from them to the Gentiles, because the Iewes neglected it. And therewithall the Apostle teacheth, that that outward and vniuersall calling, which is set forth by the creation of the worlde, sufficeth not to the knowledge of God: yea, and that the particular also which is by the worde of God, is of it selfe of small or no efficacie, vnlesse it be apprehended or laide holde on by faith, by the gift of God: otherwise by vnbeleefe it is made vnprofitable, and that by the only fault of man, who can pretend no ignorance. ] But I demaund, Did not Israel knowe God? First Moses sayth, [Note: Deut.32.21. ] I will prouoke you to enuie by a [Note: [n] Hee calleth all prophane people, a nation that is no nation, as they are not sayd to liue but to die, which are appointed for euerlasting condemnation. ] nation that is not my nation, and by a foolish nation I will anger you.
20 [Note: Isai.65.1. ] And Esaias is [Note: [o] Speaketh without feare. ] bolde, & saith, I was found of them that sought me not, and haue bene made manifest to them that asked not after me.
21 And vnto Israel hee sayth, [Note: Isai.65.2. ] All the day long haue I stretched foorth mine hand vnto a disobedient, and gainesaying people.
1 Lest the casting off of the Iewes should be limited according to the outward appearance, 4 hee sheweth that Elias was in times past deceiued: 16 and that, seeing they haue an holy roote, 23 many of them likewise shalbe holy. 18. 24. He exhorteth the Gentiles to be humble, 33 and crieth out, that Gods iudgements are vnsearchable.
1 I Demaund then, [Note:  Now the Apostle sheweth howe this doctrine is to be applied to others, abiding still in his propounded cause. Therefore hee teacheth vs that all the Iewes in particular, are not cast away, and therefore we ought not to pronounce rashly of priuate persons, whether they be of the nomber of the elect or not. ] Hath God cast away his people? God forbid: for [Note:  The first proofe: I am a Iewe, and yet elected, therefore we may and ought fully resolue vpon our election, as hath bene before sayd: but of an other mans we can not be so certainely resolued, & yet ours may cause vs to hope well of others. ] I also am an Israelite, of the seede of Abraham, of the tribe of Beniamin.
2 [Note:  The second proofe: Because that God is faithfull in his league or couenant, although men be vnfaithfull: So then seeing that God hath sayd, that he will be the God of his vnto a thousand generations, we must take heede, that we thinke not that the whole race and offspring is cast off, by reason of the vnbeleefe of a fewe, but rather that we hope well of euery member of the Church, because of Gods league and couenant. ] God hath not cast away his people which he [Note: [a] Which he loued and chose from euerlasting. ] knew before. [Note:  The third proofe, taken from the answere that was made to Elias: euen then also, when there appeared openly to the face of the world no elect, yet God knewe his elect and chosen, and of them also good stoore and nomber. Whereupon this also is concluded, that we ought not rashly to pronounce of any man as of a reprobate, seeing that the Church is oftentimes brought to that state, that euen the most watchfull and sharpe sighted pastours thinke it to be cleane extinct and put out. ] Know ye not what the Scripture sayth of Elias, howe hee communeth with God against Israel, saying,
3 [Note: 1.King.19.19. ] Lord, they haue killed thy Prophets, and digged downe thine altars: and I am left alone,
[God preserueth his.]
and they seeke my life?
4 But what saith the answere of God to him? [Note: 1.King.19.18. ] I haue [Note: [b] Hee speaketh of remnants and reserued people which were chosen from euerlasting, and not of remnants that should be chosen afterward: for they are not chosen, because they were not idolaters, but therefore they were not idolaters, because they were chosen and elect. ] reserued vnto my selfe seuen thousand men, which haue not bowed the knee to [Note: [c] Baal signifieth as much as Master or patrone, or one in whose power an other is, which name the idolaters at this day giue their idoles, naming them patrones and patroneßes or Ladies. ] Baal.
5 Euen so then at this present time is there a remnant according to the [Note: [d] The election of grace is, not whereby men chose grace, but whereby God chose vs of his grace and goodnes. ] election of grace.
6 [Note:  Although that all be not elect and chosen, yet let them that are elected remember that they are freely chosen: and let them that stubburnely refuse the grace and free mercie of God, impute it vnto themselues. ] And if it be of grace, it is [Note: [e] This saying beateth downe flatte to the ground all the doctrine of all kindes and maner of workes, whereby our iustifiers of themselues doe teach, that workes are either wholy or partly the cause of our iustification. ] no more of workes: or els were grace no more grace: but if it be of workes, it is no more grace: or els were worke no more worke.
7 What then? Israel hath not obtained that he sought: but the election hath obteined it, and the rest haue bene [Note: [f] Looke mar.3.5. ] hardened,
8 [Note:  And yet this hardnes of heart commeth not but by Gods iust decree and iudgement, & yet without fault, when as he so punisheth the vnthankful by taking from them al sence & perceiuerance, and by doubling their darkenes, that the benefites of God which are offered vnto them, doe redound to their iust destruction. ] According as it is written, [Note: Isai.6.9. and 29 10. mat.13.14. iohn 12.40 act.28.26. ] God hath giuen them the spirit of [Note: [g] A very dead sleepe which taketh away all sense. ] slumber: eyes that they [Note: [h] That is, eyes vnfit to see. ] should not see, and eares that they should not heare vnto this day.
9 And Dauid sayth, [Note: Psal.69.23. ] [Note: [i] As vnhappy birds are intised to death by that which is their sustenance, so did that only thing turne to the Iewes destruction, out of which they sought life, to wit, the Law of God, for the preposterous zeale whereof, they refused the Gospel. ] Let their table be made a snare, and a net, and a stumbling blocke, euen for a recompence vnto them.
10 Let their eyes be darkened that they see not, and bowe downe their backe alwayes.
11 [Note:  God appointed this casting off of the Iewes, that it might be an occasion to call the Gentiles: and againe might turne this calling of the Gentiles, to be an occasion to restore the Iewes, to wit, that they being inflamed & prouoked by emulation of the Gentiles, might themselues at length embrace the Gospel. And hereby we may learne, that the seueritie of God serueth as well to the setting forth of his glory, as his mercie doeth, and also that God prepareth himselfe a way to mercie, by his seueritie: so that we ought not rashly to despaire of any man, nor proudly triumph ouer other men, but rather prouoke them to an holy emulation, that God may be glorified in them also. ] I demaund then, Haue they stumbled, that they should fall? God forbid: but through their fall, saluation commeth vnto the Gentiles, to prouoke them to follow them.
12 Wherefore if the fall of them be the [Note: [k] By riches he meaneth the knowledge of the Gospel to euerlasting life: and by the world, all nations dispersed throughout the whole world. ] riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles, how much more shall their [Note: [l] Of the Iewes, when the whole nation without exception shall come to Christ. ] aboundance be?
13 [Note:  He witnesseth by his owne example that he goeth before all other in this behalfe. ] For in that I speake to you Gentiles, in as much as I am the Apostle of ye Gentiles, I [Note: [m] I make noble and famous. ] magnifie mine office,
14 To trie if by any meanes I might prouoke them of my flesh to follow them, and might saue some of them.
15 For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiuing be, [Note: [n] It shall come to passe that when the Iewes come to the Gospel, the world shall as it were quicken againe, and rise vp from death to life. ] but life from the dead?
16 [Note:  The nation of the Iewes being considered in their stocke & roote, that is, in Abraham, is holy, although that many of the branches be cut off. Therefore in iudging of our brethren, we must not sticke in their vnworthines, to thinke that they are at once all cast off, but we ought to consider the roote of the couenant, and rather go backe to their Auncesters which were faithfull, that we may know that the blessing of the couenant resteth in some of their posteritie, as wee also finde proofe hereof in our selues. ] For if the [Note: [o] He alludeth to the first fruites of those loaues, by the offering whereof all the whole crop of corne was sanctified, and they might vse the rest of the yeere following with good conscience. ] first fruites be holy, so is the whole lumpe: and if the roote [Note: [p] Abraham. ] be holy, so are the branches.
[The true and wilde Oliue.]
17 [Note: Ierem.11.6. ] [Note:  There is no cause why the Gentiles which haue obteined mercie, should triumphe ouer the Iewes which contemne the grace of God, seeing they are grafted into the Iewes ancesters. But let them rather take heede, that that also be not found in them which is worthily condemned in the Iewes. And hereof also this generall doctrine may be gathered and taken, that wee ought to be studious of Gods glory euen in respect of our neighbours: so farre ought we to be from bragging and glorying, for that, that we are preferred before other by a singular grace. ] And though some of the branches be broken off, and thou being a wilde Oliue tree, wast graft in [Note: [q] In place of those boughes which are broken off. ] for them, and made [Note: [r] It is against the common course of husbandrie, that the barren iuyce of the ympe is changed with the iuyce of the good tree. ] partaker of the roote, and fatnesse of the Oliue tree.
18 [Note: [s] We may reioyce in the Lord, but so, that we despise not the Iewes, whome we ought rather to prouoke to that good striuing with vs. ] Boast not thy selfe against the branches: and if thou boast thy selfe, thou bearest not the roote, but the roote thee.
19 Thou wilt say then, The branches are broken off, that I might be graft in.
20 Well: through vnbeliefe they are broken off, and thou standest by faith: bee not hie minded, but [Note: [t] See that thou stande in awe of God modestly and carefully. ] feare.
21 For if God spared not the [Note: [u] Hee calleth them naturall, not because they had any holinesse of nature, but because they were borne of them whome the Lord set apart for himselfe, from other nations, by his league and couenant which hee freely made with them. ] naturall branches, take heede, least he also spare not thee.
22 [Note:  Seeing the matter it selfe declareth that election commeth not by inheritance (although the fault bee in men, and not in God, why the blessing of God is not perpetuall) wee must take good heede that that bee not founde in our selues, which wee thinke blame worthy in others, for the election is sure, but they that are truly elect and ingraffed, are not proude in themselues with contempt of other, but with due reuerence to God and loue towardes their neighbour, runne to the marke which is set before them. ] Beholde therefore the [Note: [x] The tender and louing heart. ] bountifulnesse, and seueritie of God: towarde them which haue fallen, seueritie: but toward thee, bountifulnesse, if thou continue in his [Note: [y] In that state which God his bountifulnesse hath aduaunced thee vnto: and wee must marke here, that hee speaketh not of the election of euery priuate man which remayneth stedfast for euer, but of the election of the whole nation. ] bountifulnesse: or els thou shalt also be cut off.
23 [Note:  Many are nowe for a season cut off, that is, are without the roote, which in their time shall bee graffed in: and againe there are a great sort, which after a sort, and touching the outwarde shewe seeme to bee ingraffed, which notwithstanding through their owne fault afterwarde are cut off, and cleane cast awaye: Which thing is especially to bee considered in nations and peoples, as in the Gentiles and Iewes. ] And they also, if they abide not still in vnbeliefe, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graffe them in againe.
24 For if thou wast cut out of the Oliue tree, which was wilde by [Note: [z] Vnderstande nature, not as it was first made, but as it was corrupted in Adam, and so deriued from him to his posteritie. ] nature, & wast graffed contrary to nature in a [Note: [a] Into the people of the Iewes, which God had sanctified of his meere grace: and he speaketh of the whole nation, not of euery one part. ] right Oliue tree, how much more shall they that are by nature, bee graffed in their owne Oliue tree?
25 [Note:  The blindenesse of the Iewes is neither so vniuersall that the Lorde hath no elect in that nation, neither shall it bee continuall: for there shall bee a time wherein they also (as the Prophetes haue forewarned) shall effectually embrace that, which they doe nowe so stubburnely for the most part reiect and refuse. ] For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this secret (least ye should bee arrogant in your [Note: [b] That ye be not proude within your selues. ] selues) that partly obstinacie is come to Israel, vntill the fulnesse of the Gentiles be [Note: [c] Into the Church. ] come in.
26 And so all Israel shalbe saued, as it is written, [Note: Esai. 59.20. ] The deliuerer shall come out of Sion, and shall turne away the vngodlinesse from Iacob.
27 And this is my couenant to them, [Note: Esai.27.9. ] When I shall take away their sinnes.
28 [Note:  Againe, that he may ioyne the Iewes and Gentiles together as it were in one body, and especially may teache what duetie the Gentiles owe to the Iewes, hee beateth this into their heades, that the nation of the Iewes is not vtterly cast off without hope of recouerie. ] As concerning the [Note: [d] Forasmuch as they receiue it not. ] Gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the [Note: [e] In that, that God respecteth not what they deserue, but what he promised to Abraham. ] election, they are beloued for the fathers sakes.
29 [Note:  The reason or proofe: because the couenant made with that nation of life euerlasting, cannot be frustrate and vaine. ] For the giftes and calling of God are without repentance.
30 [Note:  Another reason: Because that although that they which are hardened, are worthily punished, yet hath not this stubburnesse of the Iewes so come to passe properly for an hatred to that nation, but that an entrie might as it were be opened to bring in the Gentiles, and afterward the Iewes being inflamed with emulation of that mercie which is shewed to the Gentiles, might themselues also be partakers of the same benefite, and so it might appeare that both Iewes and Gentiles are saued onely by the free mercie and grace of God, which coulde not haue bene so manifest, if at the beginning, God had brought all together into the Church, or if hee had saued the nation of the Iewes without this interruption. ] For euen as yee in times past haue not beleeued God, yet haue nowe obteined mercie through their vnbeliefe:
31 Euen so nowe haue they not beleeued by the mercie shewed vnto you, that they also may obtaine mercie.
32 For God hath shut vp [Note: [f] Both Iewes and Gentiles. ] all in vnbeliefe, that he might haue mercie on all.
33 [Note:  The Apostle cryeth out as astonished with this wonderfull wisdome of God, which hee teacheth vs ought to bee religiously reuerenced, and not curiously and profanely to bee searched beyonde the compasse of that that God hath reueiled vnto vs. ] O the deepenesse of the riches, both of the wisdome, and knowledge of God! howe vnsearcheable are his [Note: [g] The course that hee holdeth in gouerning all thinges both generally and particularly. ] iudgements, and his [Note: [h] The order of his counsels and doings. ] wayes past finding out!
34 [Note: Iob 41.2. esai.40.13. 1.corinth.2.16. ] [Note:  Hee bridleth three maner of wayes, the wicked boldnesse of man: First, because that God is aboue all, most wise, and therefore it is very absurde, and plainely godlesse to measure him by our folly. Moreouer, because hee is detter to no man, and therefore no man can complaine of iniurie done vnto him. Thirdly, because all thinges are made for his glorie, and therefore wee must referre all thinges to his glory, much lesse may we contend and debate the matter with him. ] For who hath knowen the minde of the Lord? or who was his counsellour?
35 Or who hath giuen vnto him [Note: [i] This saying ouerthroweth the doctrine of foreseene workes and merits. ] first, and he shalbe recompensed?
36 For of him, and through him, and for [Note: [k] To wit, for God, to whose glory all things are referred, not onely things that were made, but especially his newe workes which he worketh in his elect. ] him are all things: to him be glory for euer. Amen.
1 He exhorteth 2 to that worship which is acceptable to God: 9 to loue vnfained, 14. 20 euen towards our enemies.
1 I Beseech [Note:  The fourth part of this Epistle, which after the finishing of the chiefe pointes of Christian doctrine, consisteth in declaring of precepts of Christian life. And first of all he giueth generall preceptes and grounds: the chiefest whereof is this, That euery man consecrate himselfe wholy to the spirituall seruice of God, and doe as it were sacrifice himselfe, trusting to the grace of God. ] you therefore brethren, [Note: [a] By this preface hee sheweth that Gods glorie is the vtmost ende of all our doings. ] by the mercies of God, that yee [Note: [b] In times past the sacrifices were presented before the altar, but nowe the altar is euery where. ] giue vp your [Note: [c] Your selues: in times past, other bodies then our owne, nowe our owne must bee offered. ] bodies a [Note: [d] In time past, dead sacrifices were offered, but nowe wee must offer such as haue the spirit of life in them. ] liuing sacrifice, holy, acceptable vnto God, which is your [Note: [e] Spirituall. ] reasonable seruing of God.
2 [Note:  The seconde precept is this, That wee take not other mens opinions or maners for a rule of life, but that we wholy renouncing this worlde, set before vs, as our marke, the will of God, as is manifested and opened vnto vs in his worde. ] And fashion not your selues like vnto this worlde, but bee yee changed by the renewing of your [Note: [f] Why then there is no place left for reason, which the heathen Philosophers place as a Queene in a Castell, nor for mans free will, which the Popish scholemen dreame on, if the minde must be renued: Looke Ephesians 1.18. and 2.3. and 4.17. and Coloßians 1.21. ] minde, that ye may [Note: Ephesians 5.17. 1.theßal.4.3. ] prooue what that good, and acceptable and perfect will of God is.
3 [Note:  Thirdly, hee admonisheth vs very earnestly, that euery man keepe himselfe within the boundes of his vocation, and that euery man bee wise according to the measure of grace that God hath giuen him. ] For I [Note: [g] I charge. ] say through the grace that is giuen vnto me, to euery one that is among you, that no man [Note: [h] That hee please not him selfe too much, as they doe, which perswade themselues they knewe more then in deede they doe. ] presume to vnderstande aboue that which is meete to vnderstand, but that he vnderstande according to [Note: [i] Wee shall be sober, if we take not that vpon vs, which we haue not, and if we bragge not of that we haue. ] sobrietie, as God hath dealt to euery man the [Note: 1.Corinth.12. 11. ephesians 4.7. ] measure of [Note: [k] By faith he meaneth the knowledge of God in Christ, and the giftes which the holy Ghost powreth vpon the faithfull. ] faith.
4 [Note:  There is a double reason of the precept going afore: the one is, because God hath not committed euery thing to be done of euery man: and therfore, he doeth backewardly, and not only vnprofitably, but also to the great disprofite of others, wearieth himself and others, which passeth the bounds of his vocation: the other is, for that this diuersitie & inequalitie of vocations and giftes, redoundeth to our commoditie: seeing that the same is therefore instituted and appointed, that we should be bound one to another. Whereupon it followeth, that no man ought to be grieued thereat, seeing that the vse of euery priuate gift is comon. ] For as wee haue many members in one body, and all members haue not one office,
5 So we being many are one body in Christ, and euery one, one anothers members.
6 [Note: 1.Peter 4.10. ] [Note:  That which he spake before in generall, he applieth particularly to the holy functions, wherein men offende with greater danger. And he deuideth them into two sorts, to wit, into Prophets, and Deacons: and againe he deuideth the Prophets into Doctours, and Pastours. And of Deacons he maketh three sorts: to wit, the one to be such as are (as it were) treasurers of the Church Cofers, whome he calleth properly Deacons: the other to be the gouernours of discipline, who are called Seniours or Elders: the third, to be such as properly serued in the helpe of the poore, of which sort the companie of widowes were. ] Seeing then that we haue gifts that are diuers, according to the grace that is giuen vnto vs, whether we haue prophecie, let vs prophecie according to the [Note: [l] That euery man obserue the measure of that which is reuealed vnto him. ] portion of faith:
7 Or an office, let vs waite on the office: or he that [Note: [m] Whose office is onely to expound the Scriptures. ] teacheth, on teaching:
8 Or he that [Note: [n] Who in other places is called the Pastour. ] exhorteth, on exhortation: he that [Note: [o] To wit, the almes, that he distribute them faithfully, and without respect of person. ] distributeth, let him doe it [Note: Matth.6.2. 2.corinth.9.7. ] with simplicitie: he that [Note: [p] The Elders of the Church. ] ruleth, with diligence: he that [Note: [q] They that are busied about tending on the poore, must doe it with cheerefulnesse, least they adde sorowe to sorowe. ] sheweth mercie, with cheerefulnesse.
9 [Note:  Nowe hee commeth to the dueties of the second Table, which hee deriueth from charitie, which is as it were the fountaine of them all. And he defineth Christian charitie by synceritie, hatred of euill, earnest studie of good thinges, good affection to helpe our neighbour, and whose finall ende is the glory of God. ] Let loue be without dissimulation. [Note: Amos 5.15. ] Abhorre that which is euill, and cleaue vnto that which is good.
10 [Note: Ephes.4.2. 1.Peter 2.17. ] Be affectioned to loue one another with brotherly loue. In giuing honour, goe one before another,
11 Not slouthfull to do seruice: seruent in spirit [Note: [r] This piece is well put in, for it maketh difference betweene Christian dueties, and Philosophicall dueties. ] seruing the Lord,
12 [Note:  He reckoneth vp diuers other vertues together with their effects, to wit, hope, patience in tribulation, equanimitie, continuance in prayer, liberalitie towards the saints, hospitalitie, moderation of minde, eue in helping our enemies, a selfe same feeling with others as well in aduersitie as prosperitie, modestie, endeuour to mainteine honest concorde so nigh as we may with all men, which cannot be extinguished by any mans iniuries. ] Reioycing in hope, pacient in tribulation, [Note: 1.Peter 5.8. ] continuing in prayer,
13 [Note: Luke 18.1. 1.corinth.16.1. ] [Note: [s] A true rule of charitie, when we are no lesse touched with other mens wants, then with our owne, and hauing that feeling, helpe them as much as we can. ] Distributing vnto the [Note: [t] Not vpon pleasures and needelesse dueties, but vpon neceßarie vses. ] necessities of the Saintes: [Note: Hebr.13.2. 1.peter 4. 13. ] giuing your selues to hospitalitie.
14 [Note: Matth.5.44. ] Blesse them which persecute you: blesse, I say, and curse not.
15 Reioyce with them that reioyce, & weepe with them that weepe.
16 Be of like affection one towardes another: [Note: Prou.3.7. isai.5.11. ] be not hie minded: but make your selues equall to them of the [Note: [u] There is nothing that doeth so much breake concorde, as ambition, when as euery man lotheth a base estate, and seeketh ambitiously to bee aloft. ] lower sort: be not [Note: [x] Bee not puffed vp with opinion of your owne wisedome. ] wise in your selues.
17 [Note: Prou.20.22. matth.5.39. 2.cor.8.11. 1.pet.3.9. ] Recompence to no man euill for euill: procure things honest in the sight of all men.
18 [Note: Hebr.12.14. ] If it bee possible, as much as in you is, haue peace with all men.
19 Dearely beloued, [Note: Eccle.2.18. mat. 5.39. ] auenge not your selues, but giue place vnto wrath: for it is written, [Note: Deuter.32.35. hebr.10.30. ] Vengeance is mine: I will repay, saith the Lord.
20 [Note: Prouer.25.22. ] Therefore, if thine enemie hunger, feede him: if he thirst, giue him drinke: for in so doing, thou shalt heape [Note: [y] After this sort doeth Salomon point out the wrath of God that hangeth ouer a man. ] coales of fire on his head.
21 Bee not ouercome of euill, but ouercome euill with goodnesse.
1 He willeth that we submit our selues to Magistrates: 8 To loue our neighbours: 12 To liue vprightly, 14 and to put on Christ.
1 Let [Note: Titus 3.1. 1.peter 2.13. ] [Note:  Now he sheweth seuerally, what subiectes owe to their magistrates, to wit, obedience: From which, hee sheweth that no man is free: and in such sort, that it is not onely due to the highest Magistrate himselfe, but also euen to the basest, which hath any office vnder him. ] euery [Note: [a] Yea, though an Apostle, though an Euangelist, though a Prophet: Chrysostome. Therefore the tyrannie of the Pope ouer all kingdomes must downe to the ground. ] soule be subiect vnto the higher [Note:  A reason taken of the nature of the thing it selfe: For to what purpose are they placed in higher degree, but that the inferiours should be subiect vnto them? ] powers: [Note:  An other argumet of great force: Because God is authour of this order: so that such as are rebels, ought to know, that they make warre with God himselfe: wherefore they cannot but purchase to themselues great miserie and calamitie. ] for there is no power but of God: and the powers that be, are [Note: [b] Be distributed: for some are greater, some smaller. ] ordeined of God.
2 Whosoeuer therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist, shall receiue to themselues condemnation.
3 [Note:  The thirde argument taken from the ende wherefore they were made, which is most profitable: for that God by this meanes preserueth the good and bridleth the wicked: by which words, the Magistrates themselues, are put in minde of that duetie which they owe to their subiectes. ] For Magistrates are not to be feared for good workes, but for euill. [Note:  An excellent way to beare this yoke, not only without griefe, but also with great profite. ] Wilt thou then bee without feare of the power? doe well: so shalt thou haue praise of the same.
4 For he is ye minister of God for thy wealth, [Note:  God hath armed the Magistrate euen with a reuenging sworde. ] but if thou do euill, feare: for he beareth not the sworde for nought: for he is the minister of God to [Note: [c] By whom God reuengeth the wicked. ] take vengeance on him that doeth euill.
5 [Note:  The conclusion: We must obey the Magistrate, not onely for feare of punishment, but much more because that (although the Magistrate hath no power ouer the conscience of man, yet seeing he is Gods minister) he cannot be resisted by any good coscience. ] Wherefore ye must bee subiect, not because of wrath only, but [Note: [d] So farre as lawfully we may: for if vnlawful things be commanded vs, we must answere as Peter teacheth vs, It is better to obey God, then men. ] also for conscience sake.
6 [Note:  Hee reckoneth vp the chiefest thinges wherein consisteth the obedience of subiects. ] For, for this cause ye pay also tribute: for they are Gods ministers, applying themselues for the same thing.
7 [Note: Mat.22.11. ] Giue to all men therefore their duetie: tribute, to whome yee owe tribute: custome, to whom custome: feare, to whome [Note: [e] Obedience, and that from the heart. ] feare: honour, to whom ye owe [Note: [f] Reuerence, which (as reason is) we must giue to the Magistrate. ] honour.
8 [Note:  He sheweth how very few iudgements neede to be executed, to wit, if wee so order our life, as no man may iustly require any thing of vs, besides that only, that we owe one to another, by the perpetuall law of charitie. ] Owe nothing to any man, but to loue one another: [Note:  He commendeth Charitie, as an abridgement of the whole Lawe. ] for he that loueth another, hath fulfilled the [Note: [g] Hath not only done one commandement, but performed generally that which the Lawe commandeth. ] Lawe.
9 For this, [Note: Exod.20.14. deut.5.18. ] Thou shalt not commit adulterie, Thou shalt not kil, Thou shalt not steale, Thou shalt not beare false witnes, Thou shalt not couet: and if there be any other commaundement, it is [Note: [h] For the whole Law commandeth nothing els, but that we loue God, and our neighbour. But seeing Paul speaketh here of the dueties we owe one to another, we must restraine this word, Lawe, to the second Table. ] briefly comprehended in this saying, euen in this, [Note: Leuit.19.18. mat.22.39. mar.12.31. gal 5.14. iames 2.8. ] Thou shalt loue thy neighbour as thy selfe.
10 Loue doeth not euill to his neighbour: therefore is loue the [Note: 1.Tim.1.1. ] fulfilling of the Lawe.
11 [Note:  An application taken of the circumstance of the time: which also it self putteth vs in minde of our duetie, seeing that this remaineth, after that the darkenes of ignorance and wicked affections by the knowledge of Gods trueth be driuen out of vs, that we order our life according to that certaine & sure rule of al righteousnes & honestie, being fully gounded vpon the vertue of the Spirit of Christ. ] And that, considering the season, that it is now time that we should arise fro sleepe: for now is our saluation neerer, then when we beleeued it.
12 The night is past, and the day is [Note: [i] In other places we are said to be in the light, but yet so, that it appeareth not as yet what we are, for as yet wee see but as it were in the twylight. ] at hande, let vs therefore cast away the workes [Note: [k] That kinde of life, which they lead, that flee the light. ] of darkenesse, and let vs put on the armour of light,
13 So that wee walke honestly, as in the day: not in [Note: Luk.21.34. ] gluttonie, and drunkennesse, neither in
[The weake brethren.]
chambering and wantonnes, nor in strife and enuying.
14 [Note: Gala.5.16. 1.pet.2.11. ] But [Note: [l] To put on Christ, is to poßeße Christ, to haue him in vs, and vs in him. ] put yee on the Lorde Iesvs Christ, and take no thought for the flesh, to fulfill the lustes of it.
1 He willeth that we so deale with the weake in faith, 15 that through our fault they be not offended. 10 And on the other side he commandeth them not rashly to iudge of the stronger: 19 That within the bounds of edification 20 and charitie, 22 Christian libertie may consist.
1 Him [Note:  Now he sheweth how we ought to behaue our selues toward our brethren in matters and things indifferent, offending in the vse of them, not of malice, or damnable superstition, but for lacke of knowledge of the benefite of Christ. And thus he teacheth that they are to be instructed gently and patiently, and so that we applie our selues to their ignorance in such matters, according to the rule of charitie. ] that is weake in the faith, [Note: [a] Doe not for a matter or thing that is indifferent, and such as you may doe or not doe, shunne his companie, but take him to you. ] receiue vnto you, but not for [Note: [b] To make him by your doubtfull and vncertaine disputations go away more in doubt then he came, or start backe with a troubled conscience. ] controuersies of disputations.
2 [Note:  Hee propoundeth for an example, the difference of meates, which some thought was necessarily to be obserued as a thing prescribed by the Lawe (not knowing that it was taken away) whereas on the contrarie side such as had profited in the knowledge of the Gospel, knewe well that this scholemastership of the Lawe was abolished. ] One [Note: [c] Knoweth by fayth. ] beleeueth that he may eate of all things: and another, which is weake, eateth herbes.
3 [Note:  In such a matter, sayth the Apostle, let neither them which knowe their libertie, proudely despise their weake brother, neither let the vnlearned crabbedly or frowardly condemne that, that they vnderstand not. ] Let not him that eateth, despise him that eateth not: and let not him which eateth not, condemne him that eateth: for [Note:  The first reason: Because that seeing both he that eateth, and hee that eateth not, is notwithstanding the member of Christ, neither hee which eateth not, can iustly be contemned, neither he which eateth, bee iustly condemned: Nowe the first proposition is declared in the sixth verse following. ] God hath receiued him.
4 [Note: Iam.4.12. ] [Note:  An other reason which hangeth vpon the former: why the ruder and more vnlearned ought not to be condemned of the more skilfull, as men without hope of saluation: Because, sayth the Apostle, he that is ignorant to day, may be indued to morowe, with further knowledge, so that hee also may stande sure: Therefore it belongeth to God, and not vnto man, to pronounce the sentence of condemnation. ] Who art thou that condemnest another mans seruant? hee standeth or falleth to his owne master: yea, he shalbe established: for God is able to make him stand.
5 [Note:  An other example of the difference of dayes according to the Lawe. ] This man esteemeth one day aboue another day, & another ma counteth euery day alike: [Note:  He setteth against this contempt, & hastie or rash iudgements, a continuall desire to profite, that the strong may be certainely perswaded of their libertie, of what maner and sort it is, and howe they ought to vse it: and againe the weake may dayly profite, least either they abuse the gift of God, or these please themselues in their infirmitie. ] let [Note: [d] That hee may say in his conscience, that he knoweth and is perswaded by Iesus Christ, that nothing is vncleane of it selfe, and this perswasion must be grounded vpon the worde of God. ] euery man be fully perswaded in his minde.
6 [Note:  A reason taken from the nature of indifferent things, which a man may with good conscience do, and omit: for seeing that the difference of dayes and meates was appointed by God, how could they which as yet vndestoode not the abrogating of the Lawe, and yet otherwise acknowledged Christ as their Sauiour, with good conscience neglect that which they knew was commanded of God? And on the contrarie side, they that knewe the benefite of Christ in this behalfe, did with good conscience neither obserue dayes nor meates. Therefore sayth the Apostle verse 10, Let not the strong condemne the weake for these things, seeing that the weake brethren are brethren notwithstanding. Now if any man would draw this doctrine to these our times & ages, let him know that the Apostle speaketh of such things indifferent, as they which thought them not to be indifferent, had a ground in the Law, and were deceiued by simple ignorance, & not of malice, (for to such the Apostle yeelded not, no not for a moment) nor superstition, but of a religious feare of God. ] He that [Note: [e] Obserueth precisely. ] obserueth the day, obserueth it to the Lord: and he that obserueth not the day, obserueth it not to the [Note: [f] God shall iudge whether he doe well or no: And therefore you should rather striue about this, howe euery one of you may be allowed of God, then to thinke vpon other mens doings. ] Lorde. He that [Note: [g] Hee that maketh no difference of meates. ] eateth, eateth to the Lord: [Note:  So the Apostle sheweth that he speaketh of the faithfull, both strong and weake: But what if we haue to doe with infidels? Then must we here take heede of two things, as also is declared in the Epistle to ye Corinthians. The one is, that we count not their superstition among things indifferent, as they did which sate down to meat in Idols Temples: the other is, that then also whe the matter is indifferent (as to buy a thing offred to idols, in ye butchers shambles, & to eate it at home or in a priuate banquet) we wound not the consciece of our weake brother. ] for he giueth God thankes:
[All shalbe iudged of God.]
and he that eateth [Note: [h] Hee that toucheth not meates which he taketh to be vncleane by the Lawe. ] not, eateth not to the Lord, and giueth God thankes.
7 [Note:  We must not sticke, sayth he, in the meate it selfe, but in the vse of the meate, so that he is iustly to be reprehended that liueth so, that he casteth not his eyes vpon God. For both our life and our death is dedicated to him, and for this cause Christ hath properly died, and not simplie that wee might eate this meate or that. ] For none of vs liueth to [Note: [i] Hath respect to him selfe onely, which the Hebrues vtter after this sort, Doeth well to his owne soule. ] himselfe, neither doeth any die to himselfe.
8 For whether wee liue, we liue vnto the Lorde: or whether we die, we die vnto the Lorde: whether we liue therefore, or die, we are the Lords.
9 For Christ therefore died and rose againe, and reuiued, that he might be Lord both of the dead and the quicke.
10 [Note:  The conclusion: wee must leane to God his right, and therefore in matters, which according as the conscience is affected, are either good or euill, the strong must not despite their weake brethren, much lesse condemne them. But this consequent cannot be taken of equall force in the contrarie, to wit, that the weake should not iudge the strong, because the weake doe not know, that they which do not obserue a day, and eate, obserue it not to the Lord, and eate to the Lord, as the strong men knowe that the weake which obserue a day and eate not, obserue the day to the Lorde, and eate not to the Lord. ] But why doest thou condemne thy brother? or why doest thou despise thy brother? [Note: 2.Cor.1.10. ] for we shal all appeare before the iudgement seate of Christ.
11 For it is written, [Note: Isai.45.23. philip.2.10. ] I [Note: [k] This is a forme of an othe, proper to God onely, for he and none but he liueth, and hath his being of himselfe. ] liue, sayth the Lord, and euery knee shall bowe to me, and all tongues shall [Note: [l] Shall acknowledge me for God. ] confesse vnto God.
12 So then euery one of vs shall giue accounts of himselfe to God.
13 [Note:  After that he hath concluded what is not to be done, he sheweth what is to be done: to wit, we must take heede that we doe not vtterly cast downe with abusing our libertie, our brother which is not yet strong. ] Let vs not therefore iudge one another any more: but vse your iudgement rather in [Note: [m] He rebuketh by the way, these malicious iudgers of others, which occupie their heads about nothing, but to finde fault with their brethrens life, whereas they should rather bestowe their wits vpon this, that they doe not with their disdainefulnes either cast their brethren cleane downe, or giue them some offence. ] this, that no man put an occasion to fall, or a stumbling blocke before his brother.
14 [Note:  The preuenting of an obiection: It is true that the scholemastership of the Lawe is taken away by the benefite of Christ, to such as know it, but yet notwithstanding we haue to consider in the vse of this libertie, what is expedient, that we may haue regard of our weake brother, seeing that our libertie is not lost thereby. ] I know, and am perswaded through the [Note: [n] By the Spirit of the Lord Iesus, or by the Lorde Iesus, who, I am sure, brake downe the wall at his comming. ] Lord Iesus, that there is nothing vncleane of it [Note: [o] By nature. ] selfe: but vnto him that iudgeth any thing to be vncleane, to him it is vncleane.
15 But if thy brother be grieued for the meate, nowe walkest thou not charitably: [Note: 1.Cor.8.11. ] [Note:  It is the part of a cruell minde to make more account of meate, then of our brothers saluation. Which thing they doe, that presume to eate with the offence of any brother, and so giue him occasion to goe backe from the Gospel. ] destroy not him with thy meate, for whome [Note:  An other argument: We must follow Christes example: who was so farre from destroying the weake with meate, that he gaue his life for them. ] Christ dyed.
16 [Note:  Another argument: for that by this meanes the libertie of the Gospel is euill spoken of, as though it openeth the way to attempt any thing whatsoeuer, and boldeneth vs to all thinges. ] Cause not your commoditie to be euill spoken of.
17 [Note:  A generall reason, and the grounde of all the other arguments: The kingdome of heauen consisteth not in these outwarde thinges, but in the studie of righteousnesse and peace, and comfort of the holy Ghost. ] For the kingdome of God, is not meate nor drinke, but righteousnes, and peace, and ioye in the holy Ghost.
18 For whosoeuer in [Note: [p] Hee that liueth peaceably, and doeth righteously through the holy Ghost. ] these things serueth Christ, is acceptable vnto God, and is approoued of men.
19 [Note:  A generall conclusion: The vse of this libertie, yea and our whole life, ought to be referred to the edifying of one another, in so much that we esteeme that thing vnlawfull by reason of the offence of our brother, which is of it selfe pure and lawfull. ] Let vs then followe those things which concerne peace, and wherewith one may edifie another.
[Brotherly loue. The Gentiles called.]
20 Destroy not the worke of God for meates sake: [Note: Titus 1.15. ] all things in deede are pure: but it is euill for the man which eateth with offence.
21 [Note: 2.Cor.8.13. ] It is good neither to eate flesh, nor to drinke wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended, or made weake.
22 [Note:  He giueth a double warning in these matters, one, which perteineth to the strong, that he which hath obteined a sure knowledge of this libertie, keepe that treasure to the ende he may vse it wisely and profitably, as hath bene sayde: the other which respecteth the weake, that they doe nothing rashly by other mens example with a wauering conscience, for that can not be done without sinne, whereof we are not perswaded by the worde of God, that hee liketh and approueth it. ] Hast thou [Note: [q] He shewed before, verse 14. what hee meaneth by faith, to wit, for a man to bee certaine and out of doubt in matters and thinges indifferent. ] faith? haue it with thy selfe before God: blessed is hee that condemneth not himselfe in that thing which he [Note: [r] Embraceth. ] aloweth.
23 For he that [Note: [s] Reasoneth with himselfe. ] doubteth, is condemned if he eate, because he eateth not of faith: and whatsoeuer is not of faith, is sinne.
1 The stronger must imploy their strength to strengthen the weake, 3 by Christes example, 7 who receiued 8 not only the Iewes, 10 but also the Gentiles. 15 The cause why hee wrote this epistle.
1 We [Note:  Nowe the Apostle reasoneth generally of tolerating or beating with the weake by all meanes, so farre forth as may be for their profite. ] which are strong, ought to beare the infirmities of the weake, & not to [Note: [a] And despise others. ] please our selues.
2 Therefore let euery man please his neighbour in that that is [Note: [b] For his profite and edification. ] good to edification.
3 [Note:  A confirmation taken of the example of Christ, who suffered all things, to bring not onely the weake, but also his most cruell enemies, ouercomming them with patience, to his Father. ] For Christ also would not please himselfe, but as it is written, [Note: Psalm.69.10. ] The rebukes of them which rebuke thee, fell on me.
4 [Note:  The preuenting of an obiection: Such things as are cited out of the examples of the ancients, are propounded vnto vs to this ende and purpose, that according to the example of our Fathers, we should in patience and hope beare one with another. ] For whatsoeuer things are written [Note: [c] By Moses and the Prophets. ] aforetime, are writte for our learning, that we through patience, and comfort of the [Note: [d] The Scriptures are sayde to teach and comfort, because God vseth them to teache and comfort his people withall. ] Scriptures might haue hope.
5 [Note:  We must take an example of patience, of God: that both the weake and the strong seruing God with a mutual consent, may bring one another to God, as Christ also receiued vs vnto himselfe, although we were neuer so vnworthy. ] Now the God of patience and consolation giue you that ye be [Note: 1.Cor.1.10. ] like minded one towards another, according to Christ Iesus,
6 That ye with one minde, and with one mouth may prayse God, euen the Father of our Lord Iesus Christ.
7 Wherefore receiue ye one another, as Christ also [Note: [e] He did not disdaine vs, but receiued vs of his owne accord, to make vs partakers of Gods glory. ] receiued vs to the glory of God.
8 [Note:  An applying of the example of Christ to the Iewes, whome hee vouchsafed this honour for the promises which he made vnto their fathers, although they were neuer so vnworthy, that he executed the office of a Minister amongst them with marueilous patience: Therefore much lesse ought the Gentiles despise them for certaine faultes, whome the Sonne of God so much esteemed. ] Nowe I say, that Iesus Christ was a minister of the [Note: [f] Of the circumcised Iewes, for as long as hee liued, he neuer went out of their quarters. ] circumcision, for the [Note: [g] That God might be seene to be true. ] trueth of God, to confirme the promises made vnto the fathers.
9 [Note:  An applying of the same to the Gentiles, whome also the Lorde of his incomprehensible goodnes had regard of, so that they are not to be contemned of the Iewes, as strangers. ] And let the Gentiles prayse God, for his mercie, as it is written, [Note: Psal.18.50. ] For this cause I wil [Note: [h] I will openly profeße, and set foorth thy Name. ] confesse thee among the Gentiles, and sing vnto thy Name.
10 And againe he saith, [Note: Deut.32.43. ] Reioyce, ye Gentiles with his people.
11 And againe, [Note: Psal.117.1. ] Prayse the Lord, all ye Gentiles, and laude ye him, all people together.
12 And againe Esaias sayth, [Note: Esai.11.10. ] There shall be
[The Gentiles called.]
a roote of Iesse, and hee that shall rise to reigne ouer the Gentiles, in him shall the Gentiles trust.
13 [Note:  He sealeth vp as it were all the former treatise with prayers, wishing all that to be giuen them of the Lord, that he had commaunded them. ] Nowe the God of [Note: [i] In whome we hope. ] hope fill you with [Note: [k] Abundantly and plentifully. ] all ioye, and peace in beleeuing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the holy Ghost.
14 [Note:  The conclusion of the Epistle, wherein he first excuseth himselfe, that he hath written somewhat at large vnto them, rather to warne them, then to teach them, and that of necessitie, by reason of his vocation, which bindeth him peculiarly to the Gentiles. ] And I my selfe also am perswaded of you, my brethren, that [Note: [l] Of your owne accord, and of your selues. ] ye also are full of goodnes, and filled with all knowledge, and are able to admonish one another.
15 Neuerthelesse, brethren, I haue somewhat boldly after a sort written vnto you, as one that putteth you in remembrance, through the grace that is giuen me of God,
16 That I should be the minister of Iesus Christ toward the Gentiles, ministring the Gospel of God, that the [Note: [m] By the offering vp of the Gentiles, he meaneth the Gentiles theselues, whome he offered to God as a sacrifice. ] offering vp of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the holy Ghost.
17 [Note:  Hee commendeth his Apostleship highly, by the effects, but yet so, that moreouer and besides that hee speaketh all things truely, he giueth all the glory to God as the onely authour: and doeth not properly respect himselfe, but this rather, that men might lesse doubt of ye trueth of the doctrine which hee propoundeth vnto them. ] I haue therefore whereof I may reioyce in Christ Iesus in those things which pertaine to God.
18 For I dare not speake of any thing, which [Note: [n] Christ was so with mee in all things, and by all meanes, that if I would neuer so faine, yet I cannot say, what he hath done by me to bring the Gentiles to obey the Gospel. ] Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient in worde and deede,
19 With the [Note: [o] In the first place this word, Power, signifieth the force and working of the wonders in pearcing mens mindes: and in the latter, it signifieth Gods mightie power which was the worker of those wonders. ] power of signes and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God: so that from Hierusalem, and round about vnto Illyricum, I haue caused to abound the Gospel of Christ.
20 Yea, so I enforced my selfe to preach the Gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should haue built on another mans foundation.
21 But as it is written, [Note: Isai.52.15. ] To whome hee was not spoken of, they shall see him, and they that heard not, shall vnderstand him.
22 [Note: Chap.1.11. ] [Note:  He writeth at large to the Romanes, & that familiarly, his singular good wil towards them, & the state of his affaires, but so, that he swarueth not a iote from the ende of Apostolicall doctrine: for hee declareth nothing but that which apperteineth to his office and is godly: and commending by a litle disgression as it were, the liberalitie of the Churches of Macedonie, hee prouoketh them modestly to follow their godly deed. ] Therefore also I haue bene oft let to come vnto you:
23 But nowe seeing I haue no more place in these quarters, and also haue [Note: 1.Thes.1.17. ] bene desirous many yeeres agone to come vnto you,
24 When I shal take my iourney into Spaine, I will come to you: for I trust to see you in my iourney, and to be brought on my way thitherward by you, after that I haue bene somewhat filled with your company.
25 But now go I to Hierusalem, to [Note: [p] Doing this duetie for the Saints, to cary them that money which was gathered for their vses. ] minister vnto the Saints.
26 For it hath pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia, to make a certaine distribution vnto the poore Saints which are at Hierusalem.
27 [Note:  Almes are voluntarie, but yet such as we owe by the Law of charitie. ] For it hath pleased them, and their detters are they: [Note: 1.Cor.6.11. ] for if the Gentiles be made partakers of their spirituall things, their duetie is also to [Note: [q] To serue their turnes. ] minister vnto them in carnall things.
28 When I haue therefore performed this, and haue [Note: [r] Performed it faithfully, & sealed it as it were with my ring. ] sealed them this [Note: [s] This money, which was gathered for the vse of the poore: which almes is very fitly called fruite. ] fruite, I will passe by you into Spaine.
29 [Note:  He promiseth them through the blessing of God, not to come emptie vnto them: and requiring of them the duetie of prayers, he sheweth what thing we ought chiefly to rest vpon in all difficulties and aduersities. ] And I knowe when I come, that I shall
[He requireth their prayers.]
come to you with abundance of the blessing of the Gospel of Christ.
30 Also brethren, I beseeche you for our Lord Iesus Christes sake, and for the [Note: [t] For that mutuall coniunction, wherewith the holy Ghost hath tyed our hearts and mindes together. ] loue of the spirit, that ye would striue with me by prayers to God for me,
31 That I may be deliuered from them which are disobedient in Iudea, & that my seruice which I haue to doe at Hierusalem, may be accepted of the Saintes,
32 That I may come vnto you with ioy by the will of God, and may with you be refreshed.
33 Thus the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
1 He commendeth Phebe. 3 He sendeth greeting to many, 17 and warneth to beware of them which are the causes of diuision.
1 [Note:  Hauing made an ende of the whole disputation, he commeth nowe to familiar commendations and salutations, and that to good consideration and purpose, to wit, that the Romanes might knowe, who are most to be honoured and made accompt of amongst them: and also whom they ought to set before them to folowe: and therefore he attributeth vnto euery of them peculiar and singular testimonies. ] I Commende vnto you Phebe our sister, which is a seruaunt of the Church of Cenchrea:
2 That ye receiue her in the [Note: [a] For Christes sake, which is proper to the Christians, for the heathen Philosophers haue resemblances of the same vertues. ] Lorde, as it becommeth Saintes, and that ye assist her in whatsoeuer businesse she needeth of your ayde: for she hath giuen hospitalitie vnto many, and to me also.
3 Greete [Note: Actes 18.3. ] Priscilla, and Aquila my fellowe helpers in Christ Iesus,
4 (Which haue for my life laide downe their owne necke. Vnto whom not I onely giue thankes, but also all the Churches of the Gentiles.)
5 Likewise greete the [Note: [b] The companie of the faithfull, for in so great a citie as that was, there were diuers companies. ] Church that is in their house. Salute my beloued Epenetus, which is the [Note: [c] For he was the first of Achaia that beleeued in Christ: and this kinde of speache is an allusion to the ceremonies of the Lawe. ] first fruites of Achaia in Christ.
6 Greete Marie which bestowed much labour on vs.
7 Salute Andronicus and Iunia my cousins and fellowe prisoners, which are notable among the Apostles, and were in [Note: [d] Ingraffed by faith. ] Christ before me.
8 Greete Amplias my beloued in the Lord.
9 Salute Vrbanus our fellow helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloued.
10 Salute Apelles approoued in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobulus friendes.
11 Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greete them which are of the friendes of Narcissus which are in the Lord.
12 Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, which women labour in the Lorde. Salute the beloued Persis, which woman hath laboured much in the Lord.
13 Salute Rufus chosen in the Lorde, and his mother and mine.
14 Greete Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Mercurius, and the brethren which are with them.
15 Salute Philologus and Iulias, Nereas, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the Saintes which
are with them.
16 Salute one another with an [Note: 1.Cor.16.20. 2.cor.13.12. 1.pet.5.14. ] holy [Note: [e] He calleth that an holy kisse, which proceedeth from an heart that is full of that holy loue: nowe this is to be referred to the maner vsed in those dayes. ] kisse. The Churches of Christ salute you.
17 ¶ [Note:  As by namely describing them which were worthie of commendation, he sufficiently declared whom they ought to heare and followe, so doeth he nowe paint out vnto them whom they ought to take heede of, yet he nameth them not, for that it was not needefull. ] Now I beseech you brethren, [Note: [f] Warily and diligently, as though you shoulde scoute out for your enemies in a watch tower. ] marke them diligently which cause diuision and offences, contrary to the doctrine which ye haue learned, and [Note: 2.Iohn 10. ] auoide them.
18 For they that are such, serue not the Lorde Iesus Christ, but their owne bellies, and with [Note: [g] The worde which he vseth, signifieth a promising which performeth nothing, and if thou hearest any such, thou mayest assure thy selfe that he that promiseth thee is more carefull of thy matters, then of his owne. ] faire speach and flattering deceiue the heartes of the simple.
19 [Note:  Simplicitie must be ioyned with wisedome. ] For your obedience is come abroade among all: I am glad therefore of you: but yet I woulde haue you [Note: [h] Furnished with the knowledge of the trueth, and wisedome, that you may embrace good thinges, and eschewe euil, beware of the deceites and snares of false prophets, and resist them openly: and this place doeth plainely destroy the Papists faith of credite, whereas they mainteine it to be sufficient for one man to beleeue as another man beleeueth, without further knowledge or examination what the matter is, or what ground it hath: vsing these dayly speaches, We beleeue as our fathers beleeued, and we beleeue as the Church beleeueth. ] wise vnto that which is good, and [Note: [i] As men that knowe no way to deceiue, much lesse to deceiue in deede. ] simple concerning euill.
20 [Note:  We must fight, with a certaine hope of victorie. ] The God of peace shall treade Satan vnder your feete shortly. The grace of our Lord Iesus Christ be with you.
21 [Note: Actes 16.1. Phil.2. 19. ] [Note:  He annexeth salutations, partly to renue mutuall friendship, and partly to the ende that this Epistle might be of some waight with the Romanes, hauing the confirmation of so many that subscribed vnto it. ] Timotheus my helper, and Lucius, and Iason, and Sosipater my kinsemen, salute you.
22 I Tertius, which [Note: [k] Wrote it as Paul vttered it. ] wrote out this Epistle, salute you in the Lord.
23 Gains mine hoste, & of the whole Church saluteth you. Erastus the steward of the citie saluteth you, and Quartus a brother.
24 [Note:  Nowe taking his leaue of them this third time, he wisheth that vnto them, whereupon dependeth all the force of the former doctrine. ] The grace of our Lorde Iesus Christ be with you all. Amen.
25 [Note: Ephes.3.20. ] [Note:  He setteth foorth the power and wisdome of God with great thankesgiuing, which especially appeare in the Gospel: and maketh mention also of the calling of the Gentiles, to confirme the Romanes in the hope of this saluation. ] To him nowe that is of power to establish you according to my Gospel, and preaching of Iesus Christ, [Note: Ephes.3.9. coloss.1.26. 2.tim.1.10. titus 1.2. ] by the reuelation of the [Note: [l] That secrete and hidden thing, that is to say, the calling of the Gentiles. ] mysterie, which was kept secrete since the worlde began:
26 (But nowe is opened, and [Note: [m] Offered and exhibited to all nations to be knowen. ] published among all nations by the Scriptures of the Prophetes, at the commandement of the euerlasting God for the obedience of faith)
27 To God, I say, only wise, be praise through Iesus Christ for euer. Amen.